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The doctrine of contributory negligence seeks to keep a plaintiff from recovering from the defendant where the plaintiff is also at ult. However, this doctrine often leads to unir results. For example, even if a defendants negligence is the overwhelming cause of the plaintiffs injury, even slight negligence on the part of the plaintiff completely bars his recovery. Also, the negligence of many defendants such as corporations, manucturers, and landowners creates no corresponding risk of injury to themselves. In such cases the doctrine of contributory negligence, which can completely eliminate the liability for their negligence, reduces their incentive to act safely. As a result, courts and statutes have considerably weakened the doctrine of contributory negligence.


Assumption of risk may also be implied from a plaintiffs conduct. For example, the defendant gives the plaintiff, a painter, a scaffold with a badly frayed rope. The plaintiff, fully aware of the ropes condition, proceeds to use the scaffold and is injured. The defendant can raise the implied assumption of risk defense. This defense is similar to the contributory negligence defense; in the above example, the defendant might also argue that the plaintiff was contributorily negligent for using the scaffold when he knew the rope was frayed.

Special SkillsIf a person engages in an activity requiring special skills, education, training, or experience, such as piloting an airplane, the standard by which his conduct is measured is the conduct of a reasonably skilled, competent, and experienced person who is a qualified member of the group authorized to engage in that activity. In other words, the hypothetical reasonable person is a skilled, competent, and experienced person who engages in the same activity. Often persons practicing these special skills must be licensed, such as physicians, lawyers, architects, barbers, pilots, and drivers. Anyone who performs these special skills, whether qualified or not, is held to the standards of conduct of those properly qualified to do so, because the public relies on the special expertise of those who engage in such activities. Thus, an unlicensed driver who takes his friends for a joyride is held to the standard of conduct of an experienced, licensed driver.

In some circumstances ilure to anticipate an emergency may constitute negligence. The reasonable person anticipates, and takes precautions against, foreseeable emergencies. For example, the owner of a theater must consider the possibility of a fire, and the owner of a swimming pool must consider the possibility of a swimmer drowning. Failure to guard against such emergencies can constitute negligence.

BarGill, Oren, and Omri BenShahar. . The Uneasy Case for Comparative Negligence.American Law and Economics Review spring.

n. ilure to exercise the care toward others which a reasonable or prudent person would do in the circumstances, or taking action which such a reasonable person would not. Negligence is accidental as distinguished from intentional torts assault or trespass, for example or from crimes, but a crime can also constitute negligence, such as reckless driving. Negligence can result in all s of accidents causing physical and/or property damage, but can also include business errors and miscalculations, such as a sloppy land survey. In a claim for damages based on an allegation of anothers negligence, the injured party plaintiff must prove a that the party alleged to be negligent had a duty to the injured partyspecifically to the one injured or to the general public, b that the defendants action or ilure to act was negligentnot what a reasonably prudent person would have done, c that the damages were caused proximately caused by the negligence. An added ctor in the formula for determining negligence is whether the damages were reasonably foreseeable at the time of the alleged carelessness. If the injury is caused by something owned or controlled by the supposedly negligent party, but how the accident actually occurred is not known like a ton of bricks lls from a construction job, negligence can be found based on the doctrine of res ipsa loquitor Latin for the thing speaks for itself. Furthermore, in six states and the District of Columbia, an injured party will be denied any judgment payment if found to have been guilty of even slight contributory negligence in the accident. This archaic and unir rule has been replaced by comparative negligence in the other states, in which the negligence of the claimant is balanced with the percentage of blame placed on the other party or parties joint tortfeasors causing the accident. In automobile accident cases in sixteen states the head of the household is held liable for damages caused by any member of the mily using the car under what is called the mily purpose doctrine. Six states California, New York, Michigan, Florida, Idaho, Iowa, Minnesota, Nevada, Rhode Island make the owner of the vehicle responsible for all damages whether or not the negligent driver has assets or insurance to pay a judgment. Eight states Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Oregon, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia impose similar liability on the owner, but allow the owner to rebut a presumption that the driver was authorized to use the car. Negligence is one of the greatest sources of civil litigation along with contract and business disputes in the United States. Seecontributory negligencecomparative negligencedamagesnegligence per segross negligencejoint tortfeasorstortfeasortortliabilityres ipsa loquitur

Most states have adopted the percent rule of comparative negligence. Under this rule the plaintiff cannot recover any damages if her negligence was as great as, or greater than, the negligence of the defendant. This rule partially retains the doctrine of contributory negligence, reflecting the view that a plaintiff who is largely responsible for her own injury is unworthy of compensation. A minority of states have adopted pure comparative ult. Under that rule even a plaintiff who is percent at ult in causing her injury may still recover percent of damages, reflecting the defendants percentage of ult.

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In many states children are presumed incapable of negligence below a certain age, usually seven years. In some states children between the ages of seven and fourteen years are presumed to be incapable of negligence, although this presumption can be rebutted. Once a person reaches the age of majority, usually eighteen years, she is held to adult standards of conduct.

In addition to actual knowledge, the law also considers most people to have the same knowledge, experience, and ability to perceive as the hypothetical reasonable person. In the absence of unusual circumstances, a person must see what is clearly visible and hear what is clearly audible. Therefore, a driver of a car hit by a train at an unobstructed railroad crossing cannot claim that she was not negligent because she did not see or hear the train, because a reasonable person would have seen or heard the train.

One major exception to the rules of negligence exists with regard to children. If a child is engaging in what is considered an adult activity, such as driving an automobile or flying an airplane, the child will be held to an adult standard of care. The higher standard of care imposed for these s of activities is justified by the special skills required to engage in them and the danger they pose to the public.

. Ordinary negligence is the want of ordinary diligence; slight or less than ordinary negligence, is, the want of great diligence; and gross or more than ordinary negligence, is the want of slight diligence.

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Also, a person cannot deny personal knowledge of basic cts commonly known in the community. The reasonable person knows that ice is slippery, that live wires are dangerous, that alcohol impairs driving ability, and that children might run into the street when they are playing. To act as a reasonable person, an inidual must even take into account her lack of knowledge of some situations, such as when walking down a dark, unmiliar corridor.

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.. In those contracts made for the sole interest of the party who has received, and is to return the thing which is the object of the contract, such, for example, as loan for use, or commodatum, the slightest negligence will make him responsible. Jones Bailm. , ; Storys Bailm. Sec. ; Pothier, Obs. Gen. ubi supra.

Assumption of RiskUnder the assumption of risk defense, a defendant can avoid liability for his negligence by eslishing that the plaintiff voluntarily consented to encounter a known danger created by the defendants negligence. Assumption of risk may be express or implied. Under express assumption of risk, persons agree in advance that one person consents to assume the risk of the others negligence. For example, a skier who purchases a lift ticket at a ski resort usually expressly agrees to assume the risk of any injury that might occur while skiing. Thus, even if the ski resort negligently ils to mark a hazard on a trail resulting in an injury to a skier, the ski resort may invoke the assumption of risk defense in the skiers subsequent lawsuit.

Henderson, James A., Jr. . Why Negligence Dominates Tort.UCLA Law Review December.

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In determining whether a defendants negligence is the proximate cause of a plaintiffs injury, most courts focus on the foreseeability of the harm that resulted from the defendants negligence. For example, if a driver negligently drives his automobile, it is foreseeable that he might cause an accident with another vehicle, hit a pedestrian, or crash into a storefront. Thus, the driver would be liable for those damages. But suppose the negligent driver collides with a truck carrying dynamite, causing an explosion that injures a person two blocks away. Assuming that the driver had no idea that the truck was carrying dynamite, it is not foreseeable that his negligent driving could injure a person two blocks away. Therefore the driver would not be liable for that persons injury under this approach. When applying this approach, courts frequently instruct juries to consider whether the harm or injury was the natural or probable consequence of the defendants negligence.

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A DOCTOR cannot be held liable if the patient has not responded vourably to treatment, a Delhi court said while refusing to frame charges against two doctors and three nurses of RBTB Hospital accused of causing a mans death due to

As the le below shows the results of the relationship between

Foreign phrasesMagna negligentia culpa est; magna culpa dolus est.Gross negligence is ult; gross ult is equivalent to a fraud.Culpa lata dolo aequiparatur.Gross negligence is equivalent to intentional wrong.See alsodelinquencyderelictiondisinterestdisregardexpirationultincompetenceinconsiderationindifferenceinertialacheslapselaxitymaladministratioconductmisprisionneglectnonfeasancenonperformanceomissionoversightresponsibilitynegligencethe tort or delict of being careless in breach of a duty to take care. The distinction to be made is between the act or omission itself, which is not enough to create legal liability for this there must be a breach of preexisting duty of care. Such a duty can exist on the basis of precedent, as, for example, a doctor to a patient or a carrier to a passenger, or can arise through the proximity or relationship of the parties. The categories of negligence are never closed and have been extended to cover liability for negligent misstatements or foreseeable mental harm. For the tort to be eslished, the breach of the duty by the act or omission must also have caused a loss, although if the loss is a pure economic loss there are difficulties.

In order to eslish negligence as aCause of Actionunder the law oftorts,a plaintiff must prove that the defendant had a duty to the plaintiff, the defendant breached that duty by iling to conform to the required standard of conduct, the defendants negligent conduct was the cause of the harm to the plaintiff, and the plaintiff was, in ct, harmed or damaged.

The law uses the concept of duty to limit the situations where a defendant is liable for a plaintiffs injury. Whether a defendant has a duty to protect the plaintiff from harm is a question decided by the court, not the jury. Over time, courts have developed numerous rules creating and limiting a persons duty to others, and sometimes duties are eslished or limited by statute. Whether the defendant owes the plaintiff a duty depends upon the relationship between the defendant and the plaintiff.

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Actually, the termproximate causeis somewhat misleading because as a legal concept it has little to do with proximity in time or space or causation. Rather, proximate cause is related to irness and justice, in the sense that at some point it becomes unir to hold a defendant responsible for the results of his negligence. For example, Mrs. OLearys negligent placement of her lantern may have started the Great Chicago Fire, but it would be unjust to hold her responsible for all the damage done by the fire.


.. In those contracts which are made for the sole benefit of the creditor, the debtor is responsible only for gross negligence, good ith alone being required of him; as in tile case of a depositary, who is a bailee without reward; Story, Bailm. ; Danes Ab. c. , a, ; Serg. Rawle, ; but to this general rule, Pothier makes two exceptions. The first, in relation to the contract of a mandate, and the second, to the quasi contract negotiorum gestorum; in these cases, he says, the party undertaking to perform these engagements, is bound to use necessary care. Observation Generale, printed at the end of the Traite des Obligations.

In many jurisdictions the violation of a statute, regulation, or ordinance enacted to protect against the harm that resulted to the plaintiff is considered negligenceper se. Unless the defendant presents evidence excusing the violation of the statute, the defendants negligence is conclusively eslished. In some jurisdictions a defendants violation of a statute is merely evidence that the defendant acted negligently.

Sometimes, however, a completely unforeseeable event or result occurs after a defendants negligence, resulting in harm to the plaintiff. An abnormal, unpredicle, or highly improbable event that occurs after the defendants negligence is known as a superseding cause and relieves the defendant of liability. For example, suppose a defendant negligently blocks a road causing the plaintiff to make a detour in her automobile. While on the detour, an airplane hits the plaintiffs car, killing the plaintiff. The airplane was completely unforeseeable to the defendant, and thus he cannot be held liable for the plaintiffs death. The airplane was a superseding cause of the plaintiffs death.

NEGLIGENCE, contracts, torts. When considered in relation, to contracts, negligence may be ided into various degrees, namely, ordinary, less than ordinary, more than ordinary. Miles Rep. .

Conduct of OthersFinally, the reasonable person takes into account the conduct of others and regulates his own conduct accordingly. A reasonable person must even foresee the unlawful or negligent conduct of others if the situation warrants. Thus, a person may be found negligent for leaving a car unlocked with the keys in the ignition because of the foreseeable risk of theft, or for iling to slow down in the vicinity of a school yard where children might negligently run into the street.

The relationship between negligence and academic performance second grade and third grade students in city Jahrom

Sometimes physical circumstances beyond a persons control can excuse the violation of a statute, such as when the headlights of a vehicle suddenly il, or when a driver swerves into oncoming traffic to avoid a child who darted into the street. To excuse the violation, the defendant must eslish that, in iling to comply with the statute, she acted as a reasonable person would have acted.

Buswell, Henry F. .The Civil Liability for Personal Injuries Arising out of Negligence.Littleton, Colo. F.B. Rothman.

Similarly, evidence of voluntary intoxication will not excuse conduct that is otherwise negligent. Although intoxication affects a persons judgment, voluntary intoxication will not excuse negligent conduct, because it is the persons conduct, not his or her mental condition, that determines negligence. In some cases a persons intoxication is relevant to determining whether his conduct is negligent, however, because undertaking certain activities, such as driving, while intoxicated poses a danger to others.

A preexisting relationship can create an affirmative duty to exercise reasonable care to protect another person from harm. For example, an inn has an affirmative duty to protect its guests, a school has a duty to its pupils, a store has a duty to its customers, and a lifeguard has a duty to swimmers.

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The law does not make a special allowance for beginners with regard to special skills. The learner, beginner, or trainee in a special skill is held to the standard of conduct of persons who are reasonably skilled and experienced in the activity. Sometimes the beginner is held to a standard he cannot meet. For example, a firsttime driver clearly does not possess the experience and skill of an experienced driver. Although it may seem unir to hold the beginner to the standards of the more experienced person, this standard protects the general public from the risk of a beginners lack of competence, because the community is usually defenseless to guard against such risks.

EmergenciesThe law recognizes that even a reasonable person can make errors in judgment in emergency situations. Therefore, a persons conduct in an emergency is evaluated in light of whether it was a reasonable response under the circumstances, even though, in hindsight, another course of action might have avoided the injury.

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Just because an intervening cause exists, however, does not mean that the defendants negligent conduct is not the proximate cause of the plaintiffs injury. The defendant remains liable if he should have foreseen the intervening cause and taken it into account in his conduct. If a defendant negligently spills a large quantity of gasoline and doesnt clean it up, he will not be relieved of liability for a resulting fire merely because another person causes the gasoline to ignite, because it is foreseeable that the gasoline might be accidentally ignited. Also, it is foreseeable that a sudden gust of wind might cause the fire to spread quickly.

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A person has acted negligently if she has departed from the conduct expected of a reasonably prudent person acting under similar circumstances. The hypothetical reasonable person provides an objective by which the conduct of others is judged. In law, the reasonable person is not an average person or a typical person but a composite of the communitys judgment as to how the typical community member should behave in situations that might pose a threat of harm to the public. Even though the majority of people in the community may behave in a certain way, that does not eslish the standard of conduct of the reasonable person. For example, a majority of people in a community may jaywalk, but jaywalking might still ll below the communitys standards of safe conduct.

In cases such as this, the doctrine ofRes Ipsa Loquiturthe thing speaks for itself is invoked.Res ipsa loquitorallows a plaintiff to prove negligence on the theory that his injury could not have occurred in the absence of the defendants negligence. The plaintiff must eslish that the injury was caused by an instrumentality or condition that was under the defendants exclusive management or control and that the plaintiffs injury would not have occurred if the defendant had acted with reasonable care. Thus, in the above example, the plaintiff can useres ipsa loquitorto prove that the doctor negligently injured his shoulder.

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Conduct that lls below the standards of behavior eslished by law for the protection of others against unreasonable risk of harm. A person has acted negligently if he or she has departed from the conduct expected of a reasonably prudent person acting under similar circumstances.

Exceptionally, negligence may constitute a crime in certain circumstances most noly gross negligence manslaughter which requires that there was a duty of care owned by the accused to the deceased, that there was a breach of the duty of care by the accused, that the death of the deceased was caused by breach of the duty of care by the accused and that the breach of the duty of care by the accused was so great as to be characterized as gross negligence and therefore a crime. Some statutes may criminalize negligence, most noly the Road Traffic Acts, which have made careless driving a criminal offence.

Physical CharacteristicsThe law takes a persons physical characteristics into account in determining whether that persons conduct is negligent. Whether a persons conduct is reasonable, and therefore not negligent, is measured against a reasonably prudent person with the same physical characteristics. There are two reasons for taking physical characteristics into account. A physically impaired inidual cannot be expected to conform to a standard of conduct that would be physically impossible for her to meet. On the other hand, a physically challenged person must act reasonably in light of her handicap, and she may be negligent in taking a risk that is unreasonable in light of her known physical limitations. Thus, it would be negligent for a blind person to drive an automobile.

The search for proximity or a suile relationship between the parties is aided by the notion of reasonable foreseeability of harm of the kind that occurs. But this is not enough on its own to eslish liability in every case, although in cases of physical injury or damage to the plaintiff s property it is likely to carry the plaintiff a long way. Negligence in the nontechnical sense may well trigger liability under a statute that demands a certain degree of care to be taken. SeeECONOMIC LOSSFAULTNERVOUS SHOCK.

The concept of negligence passed from Great Britain to the United States as each state except Louisiana adopted the common law of Great Britain Louisiana adopted theCivil Lawof France. Although there have been important developments in negligence law, the basic concepts have remained the same since the eighteenth century. Today negligence is by r the widestranging tort, encompassing virtually all unintentional, wrongful conduct that injures others. One of the most important concepts in negligence law is the reasonable person, which provides the standard by which a persons conduct is judged.

A plaintiffs evidence of conformity or nonconformity with a customary practice does not eslish whether the defendant was negligent; the jury decides whether a reasonably prudent person would have done more or less than is customary.

AlcoholAutomobilesGood Samaritan DoctrineGuest StatutesLast Clear ChanceMacPherson v. Buick Motor Co.;Natural and Probable ConsequencesPalsgraf v. Long Island Railroad CompanyProduct LiabilityRescueRylands v. FletcherStrict Liability.

Comparative NegligenceMost states, either by court decision or statute, have now adopted some form of comparative negligence in place of pure, contributory negligence. Under comparative negligence, or comparative ult as it is sometimes known, a plaintiffs negligence is not a complete bar to her recovery. Instead the plaintiffs damages are reduced by whatever percentage her own ult contributed to the injury. This requires the jury to determine, by percentage, the ult of the plaintiff and defendant in causing the plaintiffs injury. For example, suppose a plaintiff is injured in an automobile accident and sustains , in damages. The jury determines that the plaintiff was percent responsible for the accident and that the defendant was percent responsible. The plaintiff will then be allowed to recover percent of her damages, or ,.

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A minority of courts hold the view that the defendants negligence is the proximate cause of the plaintiffs injury if the injury is the direct result of the negligence. Usually a plaintiffs injury is considered to be the direct result of the defendants negligence if it follows an unbroken, natural sequence from the defendants act and no intervening, external force acts to cause the injury.

Perhaps no issue in negligence law has caused more confusion than the issue of proximate cause. The concept of proximate cause limits a defendants liability for his negligence to consequences reasonably related to the negligent conduct. Although it might seem obvious whether a defendants negligence has caused injury to the plaintiff, issues of causation are often very difficult. Suppose, for example, that a defendant negligently causes an automobile accident, injuring another driver. The colliding cars also knock down a utility pole, resulting in a power outage. Clearly the defendants negligence has in ct caused both the accident and power outage. Most people would agree that the negligent defendant should be liable for the other drivers injuries, but should he also be liable to an employee who, due to the ilure of her electric alarm clock, arrives late for work and is fired? This question raises the issue of proximate cause.

Nursing home negligence? Negligence has specific legal definitionsand personal injury lawyers love to muddy them

ExpertsOften a plaintiff will need an expert witness to eslish that the defendant did not adhere to the conduct expected of a reasonably prudent person in the defendants circumstances. A juror may be unable to determine from his own experience, for example, if the medicine prescribed by a physician was reasonably appropriate for a patients illness. Experts may provide the jury with information beyond the common knowledge of jurors, such as scientific theories, data, tests, and experiments. Also, in cases involving professionals such as physicians, experts eslish the standard of care expected of the professional. In the above example, the patient might have a physician offerExpert Testimonyregarding the medication that a reasonably prudent physician would have prescribed for the patients illness.

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The law considers a variety of ctors in determining whether a person has acted as the hypothetical reasonable person would have acted in a similar situation. These ctors include the knowledge, experience, and perception of the person, the activity the person is engaging in, the physical characteristics of the person, and the circumstances surrounding the persons actions.Knowledge, Experience, and PerceptionThe law takes into account a persons knowledge, experience, and perceptions in determining whether the inidual has acted as a reasonable person would have acted in the same circumstances. Conduct must be judged in light of a persons actual knowledge and observations, because the reasonable person always takes this into account. Thus, if a driver sees another car approaching at night without lights, the driver must act reasonably to avoid an accident, even though the driver would not have been negligent in iling to see the other car.

abandonmentbreach of dutycarelessnessculpadelinquencyderelictiondisregardilureheedlessnessimprovidenceimprudenceinadvertencyinattentioninattentivenessincircumspectioninconsiderationincuriaindifferenceinobservanceirresponsibilitylack of attention, lack of diligence,laxitylaxnessneglectfulnessneglegentiaobliviousnessomissionoversightregardlessnessremissnelacknessunconcernunmindfulnessunobservanceunwarinesswant of thought

The concept of the reasonable person distinguishes negligence from intentional torts such asAssault and Battery. To prove an intentional tort, the plaintiff seeks to eslish that the defendant deliberately acted to injure the plaintiff. In a negligence suit, however, the plaintiff seeks to eslish that the ilure of the defendant to act as a reasonable person caused the plaintiffs injury. An intoxicated driver who accidentally injures a pedestrian may not have intended to cause the pedestrians injury. But because a reasonable person would not drive while intoxicated because it creates an unreasonable risk of harm to pedestrians and other drivers, an intoxicated driver may be held liable to an injured plaintiff for negligence despite his lack of intent to injure the plaintiff.

Even great jurists have had difficulty articulating exactly what constitutes proximate cause. Although the law provides tests such as foreseeability and natural, direct consequences, ultimately the issue of proximate cause is decided by peoples sense of right and wrong. In the example where the defendant spills gasoline and does not clean it up, most people would agree that the defendant should be liable if a careless smoker accidentally ignites the gasoline, even if they could not articulate that the smoker was a foreseeable, intervening cause of the fire.

A defendant is not liable in negligence, even if she did not act with reasonable care, if she did not owe a duty to the plaintiff. In general, a person is under a duty to all persons at all times to exercise reasonable care for their physical safety and the safety of their property. This general standard of duty may lead to seemingly unjust results. For example, if a property owner leaves a deep hole in her backyard with no warnings or barriers around the hole, she should be liable if her guest lls into the hole. But what if a trespasser enters the backyard at night and lls into the hole? Although the property owner was negligent in iling to guard against someone lling into the hole, it would be unir to require the property owner to compensate the trespasser for his injury. Therefore, the law states that a property owner does not have a duty to protect a trespasser from harm.

. When the law imposes a duty on an officer, whether it be by common law or statute, and he neglects to perform it, he may be indicted for such neglect; Salk. R. Mod, R. ; and in some cases such neglect will amount to a forfeiture of the office. Bl. Com. . See Bouv. Inst. Index, h.t.

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Associated conceptsactionable negligence, active negliience,assumption of risk, causal negligence,comparative negligence, concurrent negligence, contributory negliience,criminal negligence, culpable negligence, estoppel by negligence,gross negligence, imputed negligence, last clear chance doctrine,malpracticenegligence per se, ordiiary negligence, passive negligence,res ipsa loquitur, stannard of care, supervening negligence, wanton negligence, willful negligence

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Sometimes a plaintiffs injury results from more than one cause. For instance, suppose a defendant negligently injures a pedestrian in an automobile accident. An emergency room doctor negligently treats the plaintiff, aggravating her injury. The doctors negligence is an intervening cause of the plaintiffs injury. A cause of injury is anIntervening Causeonly if it occurs subsequent to the defendants negligent conduct.

Also, a person can be negligent in causing an emergency, even if he acts reasonably during the emergency. A theater owner whose negligence causes a fire, for instance, would be liable for the injuries to the patrons, even if he saved lives during the fire.

Cupp, Richard L., Jr., and Danielle Polage. . The Rhetoric of Strict Products Liability Versus Negligence An Empirical Analysis.New York University Law Review October.

Sometimes a person can voluntarily assume a duty where it would not otherwise exist. If the doctor who encounters an automobile accident decides to render aid to the victims, she is under a duty to exercise reasonable care in rendering that aid. As a result, doctors who have stopped along the highway to render medical assistance to accident victims have been sued for negligence. Many states have adopted good samaritan statutes to relieve iniduals who render emergency assistance from negligence liability.

In a negligence suit, the plaintiff has the burden of proving that the defendant did not act as a reasonable person would have acted under the circumstances. The court will instruct the jury as to the standard of conduct required of the defendant. For example, a defendant sued for negligent driving is judged according to how a reasonable person would have driven in the same circumstances. A plaintiff has a variety of means of proving that a defendant did not act as the hypothetical reasonable person would have acted. The plaintiff can show that the defendant violated a statute designed to protect against the of injury that occurred to the plaintiff. Also, a plaintiff might introduce expert witnesses, evidence of a customary practice, orCircumstantial Evidence.

. Three great principles of responsibility, seem naturally to follow this ision.

CustomEvidence of the usual and customary conduct or practice of others under similar circumstances can be admitted to eslish the proper standard of reasonable conduct. Like the evidence provided by expert witnesses, evidence of custom and habit is usually used in cases where the nature of the alleged negligence is beyond the common knowledge of the jurors. Often such evidence is presented in cases alleging negligence in some business activity. For example, a plaintiff suing the manucturer of a punch press that injured her might present evidence that all other manucturers of punch presses incorporate a certain safety device that would have prevented the injury.

Circumstantial EvidenceSometimes a plaintiff has no direct evidence of how the defendant acted and must attempt to prove his case through circumstantial evidence. Of course, any ct in a lawsuit may be proved by circumstantial evidence. Skid marks can eslish the speed a car was traveling prior to a collision, a persons appearance can circumstantially prove his or her age, etc. Sometimes a plaintiff in a negligence lawsuit must prove his entire case by circumstantial evidence. Suppose a plaintiffs shoulder is severely injured during an operation to remove his tonsils. The plaintiff, who was unconscious during the operation, sues the doctor in charge of the operation for negligence, even though he has no idea how the injury actually occurred. The doctor refuses to say how the injury occurred, so the plaintiff will have to prove his case by circumstantial evidence.

Contributory NegligenceFrequently, more than one person has acted negligently to create an injury. Under the commonlaw rule of contributory negligence, a plaintiff whose own negligence was a contributing cause of her injury was barred from recovering from a negligent defendant. For example, a driver negligently enters an intersection in the path of an oncoming car, resulting in a collision. The other driver was driving at an excessive speed and might have avoided the collision if she had been driving more slowly. Thus, both drivers negligence contributed to the accident. Under the doctrine of contributory negligence, neither driver would be able to recover from the other, due to her own negligence in causing the accident.

Finally, a person who undertakes a particular activity is ordinarily considered to have the knowledge common to others who engage in that activity. A motorist must know the rules of the road and a product manucturer must know the characteristics and dangers of its product, at least to the extent they are generally known in the industry.

Mental CapacityAlthough a persons physical characteristics are taken into account in determining negligence, the persons mental capacity is generally ignored and does not excuse the person from acting according to the reasonable person standard. The ct that an inidual is lacking in intelligence, judgment, memory, or emotional sility does not excuse the persons ilure to act as a reasonably prudent person would have acted under the same circumstances. For example, a person who causes a forest fire by iling to extinguish his campfire cannot claim that he was not negligent because he lacked the intelligence, judgment, or experience to appreciate the risk of an untended campfire.

.. In those contracts which are for the reciprocal benefit of both parties, such as those of sale, of hiring, of pledge, and the like, the party is bound to take, for the object of the contract, that care which a prudent man ordinarily takes of his afirs, and he will therefore be held responsible for ordinary neglect. Jones Bailment, , ; Lord Raym. ; Story, Bailm. Sec. ; Pothier, Obs. Gener. ubi supra.

Even if an intervening cause is foreseeable, however, in some situations the defendant will still be excused from liability. If the intervening cause is the intentional or criminal conduct of a third person, the defendant is not liable for this persons negligent conduct. In the example where the defendant spilled gasoline and did not clean it up, he is not responsible for the resulting fire if someone intentionally ignites the gas. Also, sometimes a third person will discover the danger that the defendant created by his negligence under circumstances where the third person has some duty to act. If the third person ils to act, the defendant is not liable. In the gasoline example, suppose the defendant, a customer at a gas station, negligently spills a large quantity of gas near the pumps. The owner of the gas station sees the spilled gasoline but does nothing. The owner of the gas station, not the defendant, would be liable if another customer accidentally ignites the gasoline.

The concept of negligence developed underEnglish Law. Although EnglishCommon Lawhad long imposed liability for the wrongful acts of others, negligence did not emerge as an independent cause of action until the eighteenth century. Another important concept emerged at that time legal liability for a ilure to act. Originally liability for iling to act was imposed on those who undertook to perform some service and breached a promise to exercise care or skill in performing that service. Gradually the law began to imply a promise to exercise care or skill in the performance of certain services. This promise to exercise care, whether express or implied, formed the origins of the modern concept of duty. For example, innkeepers were said to have a duty to protect the safety and security of their guests.

One always has a duty to refrain from taking actions that endanger the safety of others, but usually one does not have a duty to render aid or prevent harm to a person from an independent cause. A common example of this limitation on duty is the lack of a duty to go to the aid of a person in peril. An expert swimmer with a boat and a rope has no duty to attempt to rescue a person who is drowning although a hired lifeguard would. A physician who witnesses an automobile accident has no duty to offer emergency medical assistance to the accident victims.

. In general, a party who has caused an injury or loss to another in consequence of his negligence, is responsible for all the consequence. Hob. ; Wils. ; Chit. TI. , Hen. Munf. ; Str. ; East, R. . An example of this kind may be found in the case of a person who drives his carriage during a dark night on the wrong side of the road, by which he commits an injury to another. East, R. ; Campb. R. ; Cam b. ; New Rep. . Vide Gale and Whatley on Easements, Index, h.t.; T. R. ; East, R. ; B. S. C. E. C. L. R. ; Taunt. ; Stark. R. ; . R. Esp. R. , ; B. C. . Whether the incautious conduct of the plaintiff will excuse the negligence of the defendant, see Q. B. ; P. M. Lyr. Fault.

Even if a plaintiff eslishes that the defendant had a duty to protect the plaintiff from harm and breached that duty by iling to use reasonable care, the plaintiff must still prove that the defendants negligence was the proximate cause of her injury.

ChildrenChildren may be negligent, but they are not held to the same standard of conduct as adults. A childs conduct is measured against the conduct expected of a child of similar age, intelligence, and experience. Unlike the standard for adults, the standard of reasonable conduct for children takes into account subjective ctors such as intelligence and experience. In this sense the standard is less strict than for adults, because children normally do not engage in the highrisk activities of adults and adults dealing with children are expected to anticipate their childish behavior.

Even if a plaintiff has eslished that the defendant owed a duty to the plaintiff, breached that duty, and proximately caused the defendants injury, the defendant can still raise defenses that reduce or eliminate his liability. These defenses include contributory negligence, comparative negligence, andAssumption of Risk.

The implied assumption of risk defense has caused a great deal of confusion in the courts because of its similarity to contributory negligence, and with the rise of comparative ult, the defense has diminished in importance and is viable today only in a minority of jurisdictions.

StatutesFederal and state statutes, municipal ordinances, and administrative regulations govern all kinds of conduct and frequently impose standards of conduct to be observed. For example, the law prohibits driving through a red traffic light at an intersection. A plaintiff injured by a defendant who ignored a red light can introduce the defendants violation of the statute as evidence that the defendant acted negligently. However, a plaintiffs evidence that the defendant violated a statute does not always eslish that the defendant acted unreasonably. The statute that was violated must have been intended to protect against the particular hazard or of harm that caused injury to the plaintiff.

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definition of businessCollins DictionaryFat Cat Thursday, Super Blue Moon, and jackpotting Januarys Words in the News

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business structureMarriage Cultural Aspects

Ancestor Worship Ancestor Worship In China, Ancestor Worship In Japan

In France, during the s and s, the mily was thought of in terms of its crisis, decline, or rupture. Some even spoke of its death. The rapid changes brought on by the strong economic, social, and cultural movements of the era explain this phenomenon. Yet the mily was everpresent and continued to play a major role in society, as numerous works of the time emphad Rmy ; R

Mexico History Of The Mexican Family, The Contemporary Family, Stereos And Myths About The Mexican Family

Iran Marriage, Endogamy And Polygamy, Arranged Marriages, Temporary Marriage sigheh, The Family, Premarital Sex And Extramarital Relationships

Mormonism Mormon Beliefs And Practices, Myths About Mormon Beliefs And Practices, Strengthening Lds Families, Promoting Family Wellbeing Worldwide

Malaysia Marriage and Family Formation Patterns

The Caribbean, with a population of about million, consists of a series of countries stretching from the Bahamian Islands and Cuba in the north, to Belize in the west, to Guyana on the coast of South America Barrow . The region can be ided by language with some of the countries speaking Spanish e.g., Puerto Rico, some French e.g., Martinique, some Dutch e.g., Curacao, and others

Turkey Geography And Demographics, Family Life And Structure, Issues Related To Family Life, Changes In Family Life

Hutterite Families Kinship Structure, The House Child, Kindergarten, School, Adolescence, Marriage, Fertility, Later Life

The million Yoruba who live in southwestern Nigeria are one of the four major sociolinguistic groups of contemporary Nigeria. The others are the Igbo to the east, and the Hausa and Fulani to the north. Subgroups of the Yoruba in Nigeria include the Awori, the Ijesha, the Oyo, the Ife, the Egba, the Egbado, the Ketu, the Ijebu, the Ondo, the Ekiti, the Yagba, and the Igbomina. These subgroups ha

Research has consistently demonstrated that heteroual adults retain consistently and overwhelmingly negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay males. Heteroual adults commonly view this negativity as acceple despite political rhetoric lauding the contributions and multiple perspectives of an increasingly erse citizenry Kite and Whitley . The stigma, prejudice, and discrimination

The Hutterites are an Anabaptist group, along with the Amish and the Mennonites. Jacob Hutter founded the religion in central Europe in the middle s. The official name of the religion is the Hutterian Brethren. Today, they total about , members living in more than colonies. They are the oldest mily communal group in the Western world, but they consider the community to be more impor

French Canadian Families The Quebec Family And Marriage, The Family And Reproduction, Childrens New Family Environment

Any discussion of the Basque mily must begin by acknowledging that Basque milies can and do exist outside the Basque country. They differ even within the Basque country because sociological and political definitions are framed by the influence of two different states, Spain and France. The region known as the Basque country comprises an area of a hundred square miles about the of the sta

Caribbean Families Family Structure, Extended Family, Mate Selection And Marriage, Role Of Religion, Parentchild Relationships

Spain Demographic Trends, The Changing Attitudes In Spain

Sikhism The Origins And Development Of Sikhism, Family In Sikh Thought And Practice, The Anand Marriage Ceremony

Like other social formations of traditional Asia and Europe, Filipino society has, in the postCold War era, moved from being a predominantly agricultural society to a modern one. Economic transformations have brought new social changes as the concept of the traditional mily continues to be reinvented and transformed. Globalization has created international employment opportunities for migrant w

Yoruba Families Yoruba Culture And The Meaning Of Marriage, Steps That Lead To Marriage, Oja Ale, Cowife And Sibling Rivalry

The Amish and Mennonites stem from the Anabaptist movement of the sixteenthcentury Reformation. Members of the Anabaptist movement insisted that church membership involve a fully informed adult decision, hence many of them requested a second baptism that symbolically superceded their innt baptism. As a result of this practice their opponents called them rebaptizers or Anabaptists. The first adu

Kurdish Families Kurdish Family And Households, Kurdish Marriage Patterns

Ethnicity has been defined as a milys common ancestry through which identity develops as a result of evolved shared values and customs McGoldrick, Giordano, and Pearce . The definitions of ethnicity, or the more functional term, ethnic group, consist of iniduals and milies who are members of international, national, religious, cultural, and racial groups that do not belong to

In Togo, a West African nation that lies between Ghana and Benin, the term mily is broadly defined. A mily is more than a husband, a wife, and children. Blood relatives of both spouses are considered part of the mily, and the extended mily embraces all relatives, living or dead. There is a strong cultural belief that ancestors, also called the living dead, are spiritually in contact with t

As in other southern European countries, in Italy, new mily structures are coming into being more slowly and in a smaller measure than in northern European countries and North America. These new structures include such patterns as cohabitation, extramarital births, single parenthood, and oneperson households. These countries are examples of the socalled Mediterranean model Laslett . At t

France Transformations Of The Family In France, The Contemporary Family Less Statutory And More Relational, Conclusion

The collapse of the Soviet Union in has been followed by years of economic, political, and cultural tumult with serious repercussions for iniduals and milies. As the country struggles to privatize industries and services, jobs have been lost, workers have gone unpaid, inflation has skyrocketed, crime rates have multiplied, and people have discovered that attitudes and skills that garnere

Islam Background And Beliefs Of Islam, Gender Relations, Family Relations, Conclusion

Iran also known as Persia is a Middle Eastern country in Southwest Asia. The countrys official name became the Islamic Republic of Iran after the Islamic revolution of , which abolished the monarchy of the Pahlavi dynasty and eslished a theocratic republic regime. The population of Iran is approaching million female, with percent being younger than fifteen years of age

The Catholic Church traces its origins directly to the person and life of Jesus Christ. Therefore, any historical presentation of mily life as it relates to the Catholic Church must go back two thousand years to the very dawn of Christianity. Scholars of this early period point to a major role played by the mily in the life and expansion of Christianity. During the first three centuries of its

Since the s changes in population patterns and the economy have significantly affected Malaysian milies. Over those four decades, economic development, modernization, and ruralurban migration together altered mily ties and contributed to a more fragmented mily structure. There was a corresponding steady and noticeable decline in the average of the mily in Malaysia over the same p

and Japan have invaded the country often. The twentieth century also brought Korea tremendous upheaval, such as the Japanese occupation , the Korean War , the partition of the country present, and the foreignexchange crisis in . Korea and the Korean mily are both in a period of transition. The concept of the contemporary Korean mily dates

Austria Family Values, Sociodemographic Trends, Living Arrangements, Consequences Of Increased Life Expectancy, Family And Social Policy

Lying at the r southwestern corner of Europe, with million inhabitants and onefifth of the Iberian Peninsulas space, Portugal is diminutive in terms of population and territory, and comparatively homogeneous in ethnic terms. Yet it remains noteworthy for the variability of its social life, and no less so in marriage and the mily than in other social domains. Analysts of marriage pr

AfricanAmerican Families Historical And Cultural Influences On Africanamerican Family Life, Contemporary Social Influences, Africanamerican Families In The New Millennium

Families in Canadamore so than in Britain, France, or even the Americasare characterized by enormous ersity, especially regional and ethnic ersity. Canada has historically been a society of immigrants and of regions. First, the Aboriginal, or native people, arrived from Asia about ten thousand years ago. They organized into complex national groups with their own distinct cult

India is a secular and pluralistic society characterized by tremendous cultural and ethnic ersity. It is made up of twentyeight states and seven union territories. There are eighteen different languages and more than dialects spoken by the Indian people. Indians practice many religions. Hinduism is the dominant religion in India, but through the centuries Indians have learned to coexist wi

In both ancient and modern Vietnam, the mily is considered the foundation of society. Grounded in Confucianism, the traditional patriarchal mily was viewed as the basic social institution in which the welre of the extended mily outweighed the inidual interests of any member. For Ho Chi Minh, the nations revolutionary hero, the security of the state was rooted in the sility of

The Czech Republic is a landlocked country measuring , square kilometers, lying in the central part of Europe. It was eslished in after Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Czech Republic has . million inhabitants, . percent of which are Czech by nationality. The countrys borders neighbor Germany, Poland, Austria, and Slovakia. The Czech Republi

Poland Changes In Population And Demographic Structure Since The s, Legislation Applied To Marriage, The Family, And Working Mothers

Korea Traditional Korean Families, Contemporary Korean Families, Womens Labor Force Participation, Conclusion

Switzerland is a highly segmented society. Marital behavior, orce, and fertility have varied significantly by language regions and religious denomination. In addition, regional differences in mily law and social policies, which are strong due to the rreaching autonomy of the cantons administrative and geographic units analogous to states or provinces, have played an important role in thi

American Indians are the indigenous peoples of the United States. According to archeological estimates, bronzeskinned women and men from northern Asia had been exploring and settling the Americas for , to , years. By the fifteenth century, descendants of these women and men from northern Asia had spread southward to populate both continents Nabokov . When Christopher Columbus arri

Protestantism Medieval Catholic Background, Reformation Response, Lutheranism, Calvinism, Anglicanism, Legacy

Kalaallit Nunaat, the Greenlanders Land, is separated from the eastern Canadian Arctic on the west by Davis Strait, Baffin Bay, and Nares Strait, and from Iceland, on the east, by Denmark Strait. Through the ages, peoples from the northern parts of North America, Scandinavia, and Europe have migrated to Greenland, while others, most noly Scottish, English, and Dutch whalers, have freque

Compared to other industrialized countries, Israel is a milistic society. The countrys small permits relatives to live in close geographic proximity and have frequent personal contact. Holidays and lifecycle events are generally celebrated through ceremonies and customs that bring mily members together. Intramilial involvement and assistance from baby sitting through major fin

India Caste System, Family Life And Family Values, Mate Selection And Marriage, Dowry System, Status Of Single And Divorced Persons In India

Russia The Demographic Crisis, The Family In Soviet Times, Postsoviet Legal Codes Affecting The Family

Buddhism Buddhist History And Overview, Buddhism And The Family

Early marriages, a relatively small proportion of single men and women, and a high level of fertility have historically characterized the Hungarian population. The mily has traditionally played an important role in Hungarian society. The sociological and demographic analyses carried out during the s have shown that the mily is more important for people than other areas of life e.g., work,

Latvia is situated at the ancient waterway from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea via lands inhabited by Eastern Slavs. Because of its location, the territory has, since the twelfth century, been conquered repeatedlyby German crusaders, Russians, Poles, and Swedes. The principal inhabitants of the regionthe Balts, one of the ancient IndoEuropean tribes, and Livswere oppresse

China Regulations Of Family Relationships, Traditionpersistence And Transition

With a population of over eighteen million people, Ghana is the second largest country in West Africa. Since the s, Ghanas population has been growing at an annual rate of about to percent GSS . This increase is a reflection of high birth rates at a time of declining mortality. One consequence of previous decades of high fertility of Ghanaians is that the countrys pop

Basque Families Family Size, Gender Roles, Daily Life, Language In The Family, Families And Political Prisoners

To discuss First Nations milies in Canada is to simultaneously learn about a core concept of indigenous social organization and to come to terms with the legacy of several centuries of colonialism. The common sense notion of milya social unit comprised of husband and wife/parents and childis full of cultural connotations that render it ineffective as a way of understanding Fi

The word Bedouin is the Western version of the Arabic word badawiyin, which means inhabitants of the desert, the badia. Technically, the term refers only to the camelherding tribes of desert dwellers, but it has been applied in English to all nomadic Arabs Kay . The BedouinArab presence extends to Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and elsewhere in the Mid

As with any large group, the . million Hispanic/Latino/Spanish milies in the United States comprise a socially erse population. Thus an analysis of Latino/a group composition and ersity challenges the tendency to use stereos. The U.S. Bureau of the Census notes, for example, that Hispanics/Latinos may be of any raceincluding Asian, Native American, European, African, or Middl

Australia Indigenous Australian Families, White Settlement, Family Trends A Longterm Perspective, Family Diversity

Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world, with million inhabitants distributed throughout twentysix states and the Federal District. The official language is Portuguese. When the Portugueses arrived in , there were between two and five million Indians living in the territory. They spoke around one thousand different languages UnB revista . As frequently happens with those wh

The Scandinavian peninsula is made up of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Sometimes these countries are linked with the Nordic countriestraditionally including Finland and Icelandand in the late twentieth century these countries were sometimes linked with the three Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, as well as England and Scotland. This entry will examine marriage and m

Confucianism History Of Confucianism, Confucian Worldview, Confucian Meditation And Family Integration, Confucian Family Teaching, Stages And Rituals Of Life Transformation

Japan Mating And Marriage, Gender Roles, Masculinity And Mens Suicide, Decreasing Number Of Children Leave for Working Parents, Conclusion

New Zealand Historical Background, Cultural Variations, Social Benefits For Families, Continuing Family Concerns

Marriage and mily have always been considered fundamental social values among the Slovak population. Nearly percent of all inhabitants consider the mily to be the most important value in their lives European Values Study /. This feeling was formed under the strong influence of Christianity according to the last census in , of all inhabitants are Roman Catholic. Approxima

For most contemporary Egyptians, the mily remains the central and most important institution in their everyday lives. Few iniduals live independently from their immediate mily or kin, and singleperson households are almost unheard of. Iniduals of all classes constantly articulate and defend the importance of mily within the community and the nation. Issues relating to mily relations

Germany The Rise Of The bourgeois Family The German Family In The Early Twentieth Century, From Institution To Choice Family Change In West Germany Since The s

An increasing number of lesbians are choosing to become parents. Estimates of the number of gay and lesbian parents in the United States alone range from two to eight million, with the number of children of these parents estimated at four to fourteen million Patterson . Although more research exists on lesbian milies than on gay male milies, the lack of crosscultural research is nole

Venezuela Family, Society, And Culture, Excessive Motherhood, Living Together, Conclusion

Hinduism Basic Beliefs Of Hindus, Caste System, Hinduism And The Family, Household Religious Practice, Major Hindu Family Rituals

Nigeria Families In Nigeria, Marriages In Nigeria, Marriage Ceremony, Conclusion

Ireland Demographic Change, Family Change, Marriage, Singleparent Families, Children, Mothers And Employment

Other Free EncyclopediasMarriage and Family Encyclopedia

The concept of the modern milyone in which biological parents give birth to, love, and nurture childrenwas introduced in Japan in the early twentieth century, after the nation opened itself up to international diplomacy under Emperor Meiji in . A nationwide registration system was eslished at the end of the nineteenth century under the Meiji government. Until that time, pe

Judaism Tradition And Change, Migration From Europe, Intermarriage And The Jewish Future

Romania Political, Social, And Economic Setting, Family Evolution, Family Structure, Family Values, Conclusion

It is not possible to make accurate generalizations about an area as large and erse as Latin America. There are many different kinds of Latin Americans. This overview provides some on mily life in the Hispanic world, drawing mainly on the research done in a few key countries such as Mexico and Colombia, and with special focus on how the struggle for economic survival affects that l

AsianAmerican Families Varied Immigration Histories, Family Structures And Gender Roles, Religion And Cultural Values, Regional And Generational Differences

Greece, the birthplace of Western civilization, has a long history. Philosophy and the humanities have flourished there for more than , years. Greece is situated at the southeastern end of the European continent and has an area of square kilometers. Now a modern state, it has, according to the census, approximately million inhabitants. It is a member of the European Union EU. The

Peru has a population of million people, of whom percent are concentrated in urban areas. Poverty is a major characteristic, with half of the population in living in poverty. Even this striking statistic hides the extreme situations, especially in the mountains and rural areas of the Andes Mountains. According to data, percent of people in urban areas live under the povert

The population of Kenya includes fortytwo traditional ethnic groups CBS , which can be broadly ided into three groups the Bantu, Nilotes, and Cues. These three categories of ethnic groups are spread all over the country, and no particular group can be tied to one region. The regional boundaries do little to separate the similarity of customs and beliefs possessed by each group, owin

The mily is both the strongest social institution in Turkey and the foundation that supports the twin pillars of tradition and adaptation. The durability of marital unions, coupled with pressures for mutual commitment and obligation, contribute to this mily sility. In , for example, Turkey experienced a serious economic crisis, but despite severe levels of unemployment, rampant inflatio

Marriage patterns in contemporary Senegal derive from Islamic, Western, and local traditions. This situation, which has prevailed for centuries, results from secular borrowings from the Arab world and European colonizers. Senegal embraced Islam more than a thousand years ago, mainly through early contacts with traders from Northern Africa. The transSaharan trade did not survive French colonizatio

Argentine milies are a heterogeneous result of the many changes that have had an impact on their structures and dynamics. These changes have taken place both in Argentina and other Latin American and Caribbean countries in the last few decades. The socioeconomic crisis that has affected Latin America since the s aroused a growing interest in the study of its impact on mily structures and d

The concept of rural milies is, at best, a slippery one. This is because both aspectsmily and ruralare today continuously being redefined. Further, in taking an international perspective, how mily is defined varies regionally and from nation to nation. How mily and rurality are defined differs depending on the theoretical con as well. For example, feminist thinkers have

HispanicAmerican Families The Hispanics/latinos And Group Definition, Hispanic/latino Families Demographic And Social Indices

Great Britain The Nature Of Family Change In Great Britain, Family Roles Mens Work, Womens Work

In modern Western society, mily formation is based on regularly strong personal emotions, such as romantic love. Moreover, given that mily life is practically a synonym for private life, milies are the primordial social cons of and intimacy, as well as of love and solidarity. Nevertheless, although each mily operates in that essentially private manner as an intimate social gr

Senegal Entry Into Union, Endogamy, Polygamy, Impact Of Westernization

The Republic of Indonesia, the worlds fourth most populous nation, has million people living on nearly , permanently settled islands. Java and Madura hold about percent of the nations population. Some ethnic groups with their own languages and cultures inhabit the nation, some numbering in the millions, some in the thousands. The national motto, Unity in D

Greece Demographic Trends, Definition Of Family, Role Of The Child, The Elderly And The Family

Asian Americans in the United States are a heterogeneous group of many ethnicities, including Japanese, Chinese, Korean, Filipino, Asian East Indians, and Southeast Asians. They are neither a single identity group nor a monolithic culture; therefore it is more accurate to speak of AsianAmerican cultures Zia . Early Asian groups were voluntary immigrants, but after the Vietnam War, Southea

Lesbian Parents Parenting Types And Legal Concerns, Research On Childrens Adjustment

Catholicism The Beginnings Of A Social Concern For Families, Catholic Teachings On Marriage And Family Life, Catholic Teachings On Human Sexuality

South Africa, with its million residents, is a multicultural society with eleven official languages. Although most residents . speak an indigenous African language Xhosa .; Zulu .; and Sepedi , English is the language that most people understand Statistics South Africa . Family life must thus also be seen against the of cultural ersity and extreme socioeco

Evangelical Christianity History And Overview, Evangelical Views Of Family Relations

French Canadian milies populate every province and territory in Canada; however, the trends and history of these milies are most clearly delineated in Quebec. Like other milies in the Western world, the Quebec mily has experienced profound transformations since the beginning of the twentieth century. Until this period, the Quebec mily had been marked by the historical circumstances of th

Afghanistan lies in Central Asia between Iran on the west, Pakistan on the east and south, and Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan on the north side. The Afghani population in the early twentyfirst century is estimated at about million people living in Afghanistan and as refugees in Iran and Pakistan. There are more than forty ethnic groups in Afghanistan. Pushtuns are the largest ethnic

Kyrgyzstan Prerevolutionary Period, Soviet Period, Independence, Conclusion

Hungary Marriage, Cohabitation, Divorce, Fertility, Attitudes

The first mily system in America was that of the native peoples. This was actually a kinship system rather than a mily system, for despite the wide variety of marital, ual, and genealogical customs found in several hundred different cultures, most early NativeAmerican groups subsumed the nuclear mily and even the lineage in a much larger network of kin and marital alliances. Kinship rule

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legal businessWhatsApp Legal Info

For more information about WhatsApps practices please review ourPrivacy Policy.

to provide WhatsApp for web and desktop and other Services that are webbased, improve your experiences, understand how our Services are being used, and customize our Services;

When we say WhatsApp, our, we, or us, were talking about WhatsApp Inc. This Privacy Policy Privacy Policy applies to all of our apps, services, features, software, and website together, Services unless specified otherwise.

.. ICICI Bank has the absolute discretion to amend or supplement any of the Terms as stated herein at any time and will endeavour to give prior notice of days for such changes wherever feasible. By using the new services, the User shall be deemed to have accepted the changed terms and conditions.

WhatsApp customers need to select their bank followed by the account they want to link. Thereafter, they need to enter the last six digits of their debit card number along with the expiry details to create a VPA.

We may amend or update our Privacy Policy. We will provide you notice of amendments to this Privacy Policy, as appropriate, and update the Last Modified date at the top of this Privacy Policy. Your continued use of our Services confirms your acceptance of our Privacy Policy, as amended. If you do not agree to our Privacy Policy, as amended, you must stop using our Services. Please review our Privacy Policy from time to time.

No ThirdParty Banner Ads.We do not allow thirdparty banner ads on WhatsApp. We have no intention to introduce them, but if we ever do, we will update this policy.

Devices and Software.You must provide certain devices, software, and data connections to use our Services, which we otherwise do not supply. For as long as you use our Services, you consent to downloading and installing updates to our Services, including automatically.

.. The User is responsible for the accuracy and authenticity of the Payment Order provided to ICICI Bank and the same, if in the form and manner prescribed by ICICI Bank, shall be considered to be sufficient to operate the UPI Facility. ICICI Bank shall not be required to independently verify the Payment Order. ICICI Bank has no liability if it does not or is unable to stop or prevent the implementation of any Payment Order issued by the User. Once a Payment Order is issued by the User, the same cannot be subsequently revoked by the User.

Harm to WhatsApp or Our Users.You must not or assist others to access, use, copy, adapt, modify, prepare derivative works based upon, distribute, license, sublicense, transfer, , perform, or otherwise exploit our Services in impermissible or unauthorized manners, or in ways that burden, impair, or harm us, our Services, systems, our users, or others, including that you must not directly or through automated means a reverse engineer, alter, modify, create derivative works from, decompile, or extract code from our Services; b send, store, or transmit viruses or other harmful computer code through or onto our Services; c gain or attempt to gain unauthorized access to our Services or systems; d interfere with or disrupt the integrity or performance of our Services; e create accounts for our Services through unauthorized or automated means; f collect the information of or about our users in any impermissible or unauthorized manner; g sell, resell, rent, or charge for our Services; or h distribute or make our Services available over a network where they could be used by multiple devices at the same time.

any loss incurred by or threatened to be incurred by NPCI/RBI and/or any regulatory proceeding arising out of or in connection with the Users use of the Facility.

.. The Payment Order shall be issued by the User, in the form as prescribed by ICICI Bank, which is complete in all particulars. The User shall be responsible for the accuracy of the particulars given in the Payment Order for the Facility and shall be liable to compensate ICICI Bank for any loss arising on account of any error in the Payment Order.

Keeping Your Account Secure.You are responsible for keeping your device and your WhatsApp account safe and secure, and you must notify us promptly of any unauthorized use or security breach of your account or our Services.

Questions and Disputes.Pleasecontact uswith any questions or concerns relating to our Privacy Shield certification. You have the option to resolve any applicable disputes you have with us in connection with our certification through TrustArc, an alternative dispute resolution provider based in the United States. You can contact TrustArc through theirwebsite. In certain circumstances, the Privacy Shield Framework provides the right to invoke binding arbitration to resolve complaints not resolved by other means, as described in Annex I to the Privacy Shield Principles. Additionally, as part of the Privacy Shield Framework, the U.S. State Department Senior Coordinator serves as the Ombudsperson to cilitate the processing of requests relating to national security access to data transmitted from the EU or Switzerland to the U.S.

Respect for your is coded into our DNA. Since we started WhatsApp, weve aspired to build our Services with a set of strong principles in mind.

Your electronic signature or physical signature.

No Class Actions, Class Arbitrations, or Representative Actions for Users Located in the United States or Canada.We and you each agree that if you are a WhatsApp user located in the United States or Canada, each of we and you may bring Disputes against the other only on its or your own behalf, and not on behalf of any other person or entity, or any class of people. We and you each agree not to participate in a class action, a classwide arbitration, Disputes brought in a private attorney general or representative capacity, or consolidated Disputes involving any other person or entity in connection with any Dispute.

Before you report a claim of copyright infringement, you may want to send a message to the relevant WhatsApp user you believe may be infringing your copyright. You may be able to resolve the issue without contacting WhatsApp.

WhatsApp is now part of the Facebook mily of companies. Our Privacy Policy explains how we work together to improve our services and offerings, like fighting spam across apps, product suggestions, and showing relevant offers and ads on Facebook. Nothing you share on WhatsApp, including your messages, photos, and account information, will be shared onto Facebook or any of our other mily of apps for others to see, and nothing you post on those apps will be shared on WhatsApp for others to see.

Learn moreabout the Facebook mily of companies and their practices by reviewing their policies.

.. The User shall inform ICICI Bank immediately of any inquiry, question or issue raised by any authority including but not limited to any statutory authority or official regarding and relating to ICICI Bank, as well as expeditiously notify ICICI Bank of any show causes, seizure or similar action and provide copies of any notices, memos or correspondences received from such authority. The User shall not unilaterally file any response/reply to such an authority without the prior approval of and vetting by ICICI Bank.

.. WhatsApp means WhatsApp Inc., a Delaware, United States, company with offices at Willow Road, Menlo Park, CA . It provides smartphone users with certain services via their phones Internet connection, including sending and receiving messages, calls, photos, videos, documents and voice messages.

Age. You must be at least years old to use Payments.

To report trademark infringement and request that WhatsApp remove any infringing content it is hosting, please email a complete trademark infringement claim to including all of the information listed below.

any deletions, additions, insertions or alterations to, or any unauthorised use of, the Facility by the User;

In addition to what is described in ourPrivacy Policy, you share your information when you use Payments, and we share your information to help us operate, provide, improve, understand, customize, support, and market our Services, including Payments.

WhatsApp Inc. WhatsApp, our, we, or us provides messaging, Internet calling, and other services to users around the world, including the ability to send and receive payments through designated payment service providers PSPs in India Payments. Payments is a Service as defined in the WhatsAppTerms of ServiceTerms, and the following WhatsApp Payments Terms of Service Payments Terms supplement the Terms and apply to your use of Payments. You agree to the Payments Terms when you use Payments.

Unless a mutually executed agreement between you and us states otherwise, our Terms make up the entire agreement between you and us regarding WhatsApp and our Services, and supersede any prior agreements.

Any amendment to or waiver of our Terms requires our express consent.

.. ICICI Bank has the absolute discretion to amend or supplement any of the Terms as stated herein at any time and will endeavour to give prior notice of days for such changes wherever feasible. By using the new services, the User shall be deemed to have accepted the changed terms and conditions. Notices under these Terms may be given in writing by delivering them by hand, or on ICICI Banks website or by sending them by post to the last address given by the User and, in the case of ICICI Bank, to its corporate office address.

If you would like to manage, change, limit, or delete your information, we allow you to do that through your payment settings or by deleting your WhatsApp account. With your payment settings, you may register additional bank accounts, deregister existing bank accounts from your VPA, and clear your transaction history. When you delete your WhatsApp account, your bank account will be deregistered from your VPA automatically.

. You and users with whom you send or receive payments may store or reshare your VPA, name, or transaction information with others on and off our Services.

All of our rights and obligations under our Privacy Policy are freely assignable by us to any of our affiliates, in connection with a merger, acquisition, restructuring, or sale of assets, or by operation of law or otherwise, and we may transfer your information to any of our affiliates, successor entities, or new owner.

WhatsApp Business Products WhatsApp creates apps, services, features, APIs, software, or website that enable businesses to interact with users of WhatsApps products and services Business Products. Partners the data controllers may submit personal information about their customers to WhatsApp using WhatsApps Business Products. While Partners decide what information to submit, it typically includes things like customer phone numbers and other information under the Partners control. For more information, customers may contact the relevant Partner. WhatsApp uses the personal data provided by Partners to provide Business Products in accordance with the terms applicable to the relevant Business Product and otherwise with the Partners instructions. WhatsApp works with its Partners to ensure that iniduals are offered appropriate choices in accordance with the Privacy Shield Principles.

Federal Arbitration Act.The United States Federal Arbitration Act governs the interpretation and enforcement of this Special Arbitration Provision for United States or Canada Users section, including any question whether a Dispute between WhatsApp and you is subject to arbitration.

.. Notice and instructions will be deemed served days after posting or upon receipt in the case of hand delivery, cable, telex or csimile.

WhatsApp Inc.Privacy Policy Willow RoadMenlo Park, California United States of America

Eligibility. To use Payments, you must use a phone number with the country code for India and have a bank account with a bank that supports UPI. The phone number you use for our Services must be the same phone number linked to your bank account used for Payments.

As explained in more detail in our Privacy Policy, we do not retain our users messages in the ordinary course of providing our Services. We do, however, host our users account information, including our users profile picture, profile name, or status message, if they decide to include them as part of their account information.

If you have questions about our Privacy Policy, pleasecontact us.

If you are an existing user, you can choose not to have your WhatsApp account information shared with Facebook to improve your Facebook ads and products experiences. Existing users who accept our updated Terms and Privacy Policy will have an additional days to make this choice by going to Settings Account.


Device and Connection Information.We collect devicespecific information when you install, access, or use our Services. This includes information such as hardware model, operating system information, browser information, IP address, mobile network information including phone number, and device identifiers. We collect device location information if you use our location features, such as when you choose to share your location with your contacts, view locations nearby or those others have shared with you, and the like, and for diagnostics and troubleshooting purposes such as if you are having trouble with our apps location features.

WhatsApp Inc. WhatsApp has certified to theEUU.S. Privacy Shield Framework and the SwissU.S. Privacy Shield Frameworkwith the U.S. Department of Commerce regarding the collection and processing of personal data from our business partners in the European Union and Switzerland Partners in connection with the products and services described in the Scope section below and in ourcertification. To learn more about the Privacy Shield program please visit

You can follow the instructions provided by your browser or device usually located under Settings or Preferences to modify your cookie settings. Please note that if you set your browser or device to disable cookies, certain of our Services may not function properly.

The User hereby undertakes, represents and warrants to ICICI Bank that

We may ask you to agree to additional terms for certain of our Services in the future, which will govern to the extent there is a conflict between our Terms and such additional terms.

to remember your choices, such as your language preferences, and otherwise to customize our Services for you; and

.. Users shall not hold ICICI Bank responsible and/or liable in any manner whatsoever for any losses/damages/costs incurred by the User for creation of the VPA and/or initiating/processing/cancelling any transaction on the WhatsApp Platform.

.. NPCI UPI System means the switch and related equipment and software owned by NPCI to provide the UPIbased fund transfer and funds collection cility including the National Financial Switch.

The WhatsApp Privacy Policy helps explain our information practices. Our Services may include enabling you to send and receive payments Payments, a service we provide through, and in coordination with, designated payment service providers PSPs.

You must include your name and residence address; the mobile phone number associated with your account; and a clear statement that you want to opt out of our Terms agreement to arbitrate.

.. ICICI Bank may subcontract and employ agents to carry out any of its obligations hereunder.

.. All Payment Orders, requests, directives, orders and directions, entered by the User, are based upon the Users decisions and are the sole responsibility of the User.

Your License to WhatsApp.In order to operate and provide our Services, you grant WhatsApp a worldwide, nonexclusive, royaltyfree, sublicensable, and transferable license to use, reproduce, distribute, create derivative works of, , and perform the information including the content that you upload, submit, store, send, or receive on or through our Services. The rights you grant in this license are for the limited purpose of operating and providing our Services such as to allow us to your profile picture and status message, transmit your messages, store your undelivered messages on our servers for up to days as we try to deliver them, and otherwise as described in our Privacy Policy.

Cookies.We use cookies to operate and provide our Services, including to provide our Services that are webbased, improve your experiences, understand how our Services are being used, and customize our Services. For example, we use cookies to provide WhatsApp for web and desktop and other webbased services. We may also use cookies to understand which of our FAQs are most popular and to show you relevant content related to our Services. Additionally, we may use cookies to remember your choices, such as your language preferences, and otherwise to customize our Services for you.Learn moreabout how we use cookies to provide you our Services.

.. The User shall be solely liable for ensuring the availability of sufficient funds in the Accounts at all times for the purpose of availing the Facility. The User agrees that in the event there are insufficient funds in the Account, ICICI Bank can decline the transaction instruction.

WhatsApp provides messaging, Internet calling, and other services to users around the world. Our Privacy Policy helps explain our information including message practices. For example, we talk about what information we collect and how this affects you. We also explain the steps we take to protect your like building WhatsApp so delivered messages arent stored and giving you control over who you communicate with on our Services.

We may amend or update these Terms. We will provide you notice of amendments to our Terms, as appropriate, and update the Last Modified date at the top of our Terms. Your continued use of our Services confirms your acceptance of our Terms, as amended. If you do not agree to our Terms, as amended, you must stop using our Services. Please review our Terms from time to time.

ThirdParty Providers.We work with thirdparty providers to help us operate, provide, improve, understand, customize, support, and market our Services. When we share information with thirdparty providers, we require them to use your information in accordance with our instructions and terms or with express permission from you.

A cookie is a small file that a website you visit asks your browser to store on your computer or mobile device.

.. The User agrees and understands that the transaction will be recorded in the statement of account as given to the User by the Users bank. The User agrees that they shall not be entitled to dispute the correctness of the execution of the Payment Order or the amount debited to their Accounts if they il to report the discrepancy as per NPCI guidelines.

Registration. You must be an owner of the bank account you use to send and receive funds through Payments. After you provide information to confirm your mobile banking account, WhatsApp creates a virtual payment address that is associated with your WhatsApp account. We will ask you to create an UPI PIN for your bank account if you do not already have one.

WhatsApp receives or collects information when we operate and provide our Services, including when you install, access, or use our Services.

These terms and conditions Terms apply to and regulate the provision of a Unified Payments Intece Servicebased electronic fund transfer and fund collection cility provided by ICICI Bank to its Users through the application owned and maintained by WhatsApp Facility subject to the Terms herein specified.

Transactional Information.If you pay for our Services, we may receive information and confirmations, such as payment receipts, including from app stores or other third parties processing your payment.

.. In the event the User is a beneficiary, the User hereby consents ICICI Bank to permit the remitter to store their information including but not limited to bank account number for the purpose of sending the payments.


Payments Transactions Are Final. Once you submit a payment, it is final. WhatsApp does not provide refunds or cilitate chargebacks. WhatsApp is not liable for unauthorized transactions. We assume no responsibility for the underlying transaction of funds, or the actions or identity of any transfer recipient or sender.

Our Role. Payments is a service we provide through, and in coordination with, designated PSPs. We provide a convenient platform that enables you to submit transaction instructions to PSPs for processing via the Unified Payments Intece UPI. We are not a licensed financial institution, do not receive, transfer, or store any funds in connection with Payments, and are not responsible for UPI service interruptions or acts or omissions of PSPs or your bank including the payment, settlement, and clearance of funds. You have a separate relationship with your bank regarding your bank account, and WhatsApp has no affiliation with your bank in this respect.

Status Information.We collect information about your online and status message changes on our Services, such as whether you are online your online status, when you last used our Services your last seen status, and when you last updated your status message.

. When you send a payment, you identify the recipient or provide the recipients virtual payment address VPA and designate the transaction amount. This payment transaction information is handled securely. Messages sent with payments are delivered once the transaction has processed and are treated as described in our Privacy Policy.

Services Settings.You can change your Services settings to manage certain information available to other users. You can manage your contacts, groups, and broadcast lists, or use our block feature to manage the users with whom you communicate.

The User hereby acknowledges that the User has read and understood the Terms and agrees that the rights and obligations provided therein and in these Terms insor as it relates to the User shall be binding on the User with regard to every Payment Order issued by them for execution in the NPCI UPI System. The User understands and agrees that nothing in terms of availing the Facility shall be construed as creating any contractual or other rights against NPCI or any participant in the NPCI UPI System other than ICICI Bank. Notwithstanding anything contained herein, all terms and conditions stipulated by ICICI Bank in connection with the Accounts shall continue to apply. ThePrivacy PolicyandCustomer Rights Policyof ICICI Bank shall continue to apply on the Users. These Terms and Conditions are in addition to any terms and conditions that WhatsApp may prescribe for the use of its WhatsApp Application.

Our Services are not intended for distribution to or use in any country where such distribution or use would violate local law or would subject us to any regulations in another country. We reserve the right to limit our Services in any country.

.. WhatsApp Application means WhatsApps existing and future applications and services including its business and consumer applications and services for mobile, desktop and web.

Your Connections.To help you organize how you communicate with others, we may create a vorites list of your contacts for you, and you can create, join, or get added to groups and broadcast lists, and such groups and lists get associated with your account information.

Except as contemplated herein, our Terms do not give any thirdparty beneficiary rights.

You have a good ith belief that use of the copyrighted or trademarked content described above, in the manner you have complained of, is not authorized by the copyright or trademark owner, its agent, or the law;

.. The User irrevocably and unconditionally authorises ICICI Bank to access all the Users Accounts and records for the purpose of providing the Facility. The User agrees that ICICI Bank and its affiliates or their contractors may hold and process their personal information and all other information concerning their Accounts on computer or otherwise in connection with the Facility as well as for analysis, credit scoring and marketing.

We will explore ways for you and businesses to communicate with each other using WhatsApp, such as through order, transaction, and appointment information, delivery and shipping notifications, product and service updates, and marketing. For example, you may receive flight status information for upcoming travel, a receipt for something you purchased, or a notification when a delivery will be made. Messages you may receive containing marketing could include an offer for something that might interest you. We do not want you to have a spammy experience; as with all of your messages, you can manage these communications, and we will honor the choices you make.

.. ICICI Bank may withdraw or terminate the UPI Facility anytime either entirely or with reference to a specific UPI Facility without assigning any reasons whatsoever. ICICI Bank may suspend or terminate the UPI Facility without prior notice if the User has breached any of these Terms.

OptOut Procedure.You may opt out of this agreement to arbitrate. If you do so, neither we nor you can require the other to participate in an arbitration proceeding. To opt out, you must notify us in writing postmarked within days of the later of i the date that you first accepted our Terms; and ii the date you became subject to this arbitration provision. You must use this address to optout

ThirdParty Providers.We work with thirdparty providers to help us operate, provide, improve, understand, customize, support, and market our Services. For example, we work with companies to distribute our apps, provide our infrastructure, delivery, and other systems, supply map and places information, process payments, help us understand how people use our Services, and market our Services. These providers may provide us information about you in certain circumstances; for example, app stores may provide us reports to help us diagnose and fix service issues.

.. The User shall be entitled, subject to Terms, to issue Payment Orders for execution by ICICI Bank.

.. ICICI Bank does not hold out any warranty and makes no representation about the quality of the Facility. The User agrees and acknowledges that ICICI Bank shall not be liable and shall in no way be held responsible for any damages whatsoever, whether such damages are direct, indirect, incidental or consequential and irrespective of whether any claim is based on loss of revenue, interruption of business, transaction carried out by the User and processed by ICICI Bank, information provided or disclosed by ICICI Bank regarding Accounts or any loss of any character or nature whatsoever and whether sustained by the User or by any other person. While ICICI Bank shall endeavour to promptly execute and process the transactions as proposed to be made by the User, ICICI Bank shall not be responsible for any nonresponse or delay in responding due to any reason whatsoever, including due to ilure of operational systems or any requirement of law. ICICI Bank shall not be liable for any loss, claim or damage suffered by the User and/or any other third party arising out of or resulting from ilure of a UPI transaction on account of timeout transaction; i.e., where no response is received from NPCI or the beneficiary bank to the transaction request and/or where mobile number or account number of the beneficiary does not exist. Further, ICICI Bank shall also not be liable for any loss, damage and/or claim arising out of or resulting from wrong beneficiary details, mobile number and/or account details being provided by the Customer. ICICI Bank shall, under no circumstance, be held liable to the User if Facility access is not available in the desired manner for reasons including but not limited to natural calamities, legal restraints, ults in the telecommunication network or network ilure, or any other reason beyond the control of ICICI Bank.

Deleting Your WhatsApp Account.You may delete your WhatsApp account at any time including if you want to revoke your consent to our use of your information using our inapp delete my account feature. When you delete your WhatsApp account, your undelivered messages are deleted from our servers as well as any of your other information we no longer need to operate and provide our Services. Be mindful that if you only delete our Services from your device without using our inapp delete my account feature, your information may be stored with us for a longer period. Please remember that when you delete your account, it does not affect the information other users have relating to you, such as their copy of the messages you sent them.

Commercial Messaging.We will allow you and third parties, like businesses, to communicate with each other using WhatsApp, such as through order, transaction, and appointment information, delivery and shipping notifications, product and service updates, and marketing. For example, you may receive flight status information for upcoming travel, a receipt for something you purchased, or a notification when a delivery will be made. Messages you may receive containing marketing could include an offer for something that might interest you. We do not want you to have a spammy experience; as with all of your messages, you can manage these communications, and we will honor the choices you make.

You will not transfer any of your rights or obligations under our Terms to anyone else without our prior written consent.

Age.You must be at least years old to use our Services or such greater age required in your country for you to be authorized to use our Services without parental approval. In addition to being of the minimum required age to use our Services under applicable law, if you are not old enough to have authority to agree to our Terms in your country, your parent or guardian must agree to our Terms on your behalf.

.. The clause headings in these Terms are only for convenience and do not affect the meaning of the relative clause.

Registration.You must register for our Services using accurate data, provide your current mobile phone number, and, if you change it, update this mobile phone number using our inapp change number feature. You agree to receive messages and phone calls from us or our thirdparty providers with codes to register for our Services.

If we il to enforce any of our Terms, it will not be considered a waiver.

Safety and Security.We verify accounts and activity, and promote safety and security on and off our Services, such as by investigating suspicious activity or violations of our Terms, and to ensure our Services are being used legally.

Please also readWhatsApps Terms of ServiceTerms, which describes the terms under which you use our Services.

any breach of any covenant or obligation to be performed by the User hereunder;

Our Terms are written in English U.S.. Any translated version is provided solely for your convenience. To the extent any translated version of our Terms conflicts with the English version, the English version controls.

All of our rights and obligations under our Terms are freely assignable by us to any of our affiliates or in connection with a merger, acquisition, restructuring, or sale of assets, or by operation of law or otherwise, and we may transfer your information to any of our affiliates, successor entities, or new owner.

If any provision of these Terms is deemed unlawful, void, or for any reason unenforceable, then that provision shall be deemed severable from our Terms and shall not affect the validity and enforceability of the remaining provisions, except as set forth in the Special Arbitration Provision for United States or Canada Users Severability section below.

.. The User shall not hold ICICI Bank responsible for any damage, claim or issue arising out of or in connection with any purchase of goods/services from merchants through Payment Orders issued by the Facility. The User understands and agrees that all such losses, damages and issues shall constitute a claim against such merchants.

Information Others Provide About You.We receive information other people provide us, which may include information about you. For example, when other users you know use our Services, they may provide your phone number from their mobile address book just as you may provide theirs, or they may send you a message, send messages to groups to which you belong, or call you.

.. ICICI Bank states that it has no liability or obligation to keep a record of the Payment Orders to provide information to the User or for verifying the Payment Orders. ICICI Bank shall refuse to comply with the Payment Orders without assigning any reason and shall not be under any duty to assess the prudence or otherwise of any Payment Order. ICICI Bank has the right to suspend the transactions with respect to the UPI Facility if it has reason to believe that the Users Payment Orders will lead to or expose to direct or indirect loss to ICICI Bank or may require an indemnity from the User before continuing to operate the UPI Facility.

WhatsApps Rights.We own all copyrights, trademarks, domains, logos, trade dress, trade secrets, patents, and other intellectual property rights associated with our Services. You may not use our copyrights, trademarks, domains, logos, trade dress, patents, and other intellectual property rights unless you have our express permission and except in accordance with ourBrand Guidelines. You may use the trademarks our affiliated companies only with their permission, including as authorized in any published brand guidelines.

We joined theFacebook mily of companiesin . As part of the Facebook mily of companies, WhatsApp receives information from, and shares information with, this mily of companies. We may use the information we receive from them, and they may use the information we share with them, to help operate, provide, improve, understand, customize, support, and market our Services and their offerings. This includes helping improve infrastructure and delivery systems, understanding how our Services or theirs are used, securing systems, and fighting spam, abuse, or infringement activities. Facebook and the other companies in the Facebook mily also may use information from us to improve your experiences within their services such as product suggestions for example, of friends or connections, or of interesting content and showing relevant offers and ads. However, your WhatsApp messages will not be shared onto Facebook for others to see. In ct, Facebook will not use your WhatsApp messages for any purpose other than to assist us in operating and providing our Services.

Your Contacts and Others.Users with whom you communicate may store or reshare your information including your phone number or messages with others on and off our Services. You can use your Services settings and the block feature in our Services to manage the users of our Services with whom you communicate and certain information you share.

. We work with thirdparty providers and services to help us operate Payments and provide customer support. These providers and services may provide us information about you or your Payments transactions in certain circumstances; for example, we may receive information about you or your transactions from a PSP such as information to confirm your registration, your name, account status, transaction reference IDs, risk or fraud alerts, and the like. Please note that the thirdpartys terms and policies will govern your use of its services.

We may collect, use, preserve, and share your information if we have a goodith belief that it is reasonably necessary to a respond pursuant to applicable law or regulations, to legal process, or to government requests; b enforce our Terms and any other applicable terms and policies, including for investigations of potential violations; c detect, investigate, prevent, and address fraud and other illegal activity, security, or technical issues; or d protect the rights, property, and safety of our users, WhatsApp, the Facebook mily of companies, or others.

The User agrees, at their own expense, to indemnify, defend and hold harmless ICICI Bank against any claim, suit, action or other proceeding brought against ICICI Bank, to the extent that such claim, suit, action or other proceeding brought against ICICI Bank is based on or arises in connection with the use of the Facility with reference to

Your Messages.We do not retain your messages in the ordinary course of providing our Services to you. Once your messages including your chats, photos, videos, voice messages, files, and share location information are delivered, they are deleted from our servers. Your messages are stored on your own device. If a message cannot be delivered immediately for example, if you are offline, we may keep it on our servers for up to days as we try to deliver it. If a message is still undelivered after days, we delete it. To improve performance and deliver media messages more efficiently, such as when many people are sharing a popular photo or video, we may retain that content on our servers for a longer period of time. We also offer endtoend encryption for our Services, which is on by deult, when you and the people with whom you message use a version of our app released after April , . Endtoend encryption means that your messages are encrypted to protect against us and third parties from reading them.

The arbitration will be administered by the American Arbitration Association AAA under its Commercial Arbitration Rules in effect at the time the arbitration is started, including the Optional Rules for Emergency Measures of Protection and the Supplementary Procedures for ConsumerRelated Disputes together, the AAA Rules. The arbitration will be presided over by a single arbitrator selected in accordance with the AAA Rules. The AAA Rules, information regarding initiating a Dispute, and a description of the arbitration process are available at The arbitrator will decide whether a Dispute can be arbitrated. The location of the arbitration and the allocation of fees and costs for such arbitration shall be determined in accordance with the AAA Rules. Notwithstanding the AAA Rules, we will reimburse you for all the AAA administrative fees in Disputes that are subject to the Supplementary Procedures for ConsumerRelated Disputes, unless the arbitrator determines that a Dispute was filed for purposes of harassment or is patently frivolous.

This Payments Privacy Policy supplements ourPrivacy Policy, which applies to the use of our Services, including Payments. Please also see WhatsAppsTerms of ServiceTerms, which describe the terms under which you use our Services including Payments, and the WhatsApp Payments Terms of Service Payments Terms, which supplement the Terms, govern your use of Payments, and describe Payments in more detail. Please read all of these documents carefully.

Changing Your Mobile Phone Number, Profile Name and Picture, and Status Message.You must change your mobile phone number using our inapp change number feature and transfer your account to your new mobile phone number. You can also change your profile name, profile picture, and status message at any time.

.. The User hereby expressly consents to and permits ICICI Bank, its affiliates and all the parties involved in the payment system including but not limited to Payments System Providers, acquiring banks, partner banks, the issuer bank of the senders funding account, the issuer bank of the beneficiarys bank account, NPCI and RBI to collect, store and share such information including but not limited to their personal information such as name, address, all transaction details carried out through the WhatsApp Platform or information with respect to third parties and the beneficiary including bank account number.

If there is any conflict between these Payments Terms and the Terms, these Payments Terms control solely with respect to your use of Payments and only to the extent of the conflict.

Address Book.You provide us the phone numbers of WhatsApp users and your other contacts in your mobile phone address book on a regular basis. You confirm you are authorized to provide us such numbers to allow us to provide our Services.

.. The laws of India shall govern these terms and conditions and/or the operations in the Accounts maintained with ICICI Bank. Any legal action or proceedings arising out of these Terms shall be brought in the courts or tribunals at Mumbai in India. ICICI Bank may, however, in its absolute discretion commence any legal action or proceedings arising out of these Terms in any other court, tribunal or other appropriate forum, and the User hereby consents to that jurisdiction.

to understand which of our FAQs are most popular and to show you relevant content related to our Services;

We may amend or update these Payments Terms. We will provide you notice of amendments to our Payments Terms, as appropriate, and update the Last Modified date at the top of our Payments Terms. Your continued use of Payments confirms your acceptance of our Payments Terms, as amended. If you do not agree to our Payments Terms, as amended, you must stop using Payments. Please review our Payments Terms from time to time.

To access our Terms in certain other languages, change the language setting for your WhatsApp session. If our Terms are not available in the language you select, we will deult to the English version.

.. The laws of India shall govern these terms and conditions and/or the operations in the Accounts maintained with ICICI Bank. Any legal action or proceedings arising out of these Terms shall be brought in the courts or tribunals at Mumbai in India.

.. Any provision of these Terms which is prohibited or unenforceable in any jurisdiction shall, as to such jurisdiction, be ineffective to the extent of prohibition or unenforceability but shall not invalidate the remaining provisions of these Terms or affect such provision in any other jurisdiction. ICICI Bank shall have the right of setoff and lien, irrespective of any other lien or charge, present as well as future on the deposits held in the Accounts to the extent of all outstanding dues, whatsoever, arising as a result of the Facility extended to and/or used by the User.

ThirdParty Services.We allow you to use our Services in connection with thirdparty services. If you use our Services with such thirdparty services, we may receive information about you from them; for example, if you use the WhatsApp share button on a news service to share a news article with your WhatsApp contacts, groups, or broadcast lists on our Services, or if you choose to access our Services through a mobile carriers or device providers promotion of our Services. Please note that when you use thirdparty services, their own terms and policies will govern your use of those services.

Information reasonably sufficient to permit us to locate the material on our Services. The easiest way to do this is by providing us the phone number of the inidual who has submitted the infringing content on our Services.

Business Use of Payments. If you are a business and use our Services, you must comply with all applicable laws associated with your use of our Services, including Payments. You must clearly disclose any applicable terms and fees to your customers and promptly fulfill any goods or services you sell using Payments in accordance with any sale terms and applicable laws. WhatsApp is not a party to the transaction.

Small Claims Court.As an alternative to arbitration, if permitted by your local small claims courts rules, you may bring your Dispute in your local small claims court, as long as the matter advances on an inidual nonclass basis.

The User may apply for the Facility by installing the WhatsApp mobile application on their device and completing a onetime activation/registration for the Facility. The User will have an option to set a virtual payment address VPA by linking an Account maintained with any bank in India through a onetime registration process defined and standardised by NPCI/ICICI Bank and then start transacting. The process of registration is

Please review the following documents, which provide additional information about your use of our Services

Respect for your is coded into our DNA. Since we started WhatsApp, weve built our Services with a set of strong principles in mind. In our updated Terms and Privacy Policy youll find

We use all the information we have to help us operate, provide, improve, understand, customize, support, and market Payments. This includes using the information to provide Payments and customer support, to protect you and others using our Services from fraud, abuse, or other misconduct, and to review your account activity to determine whether you continue to meet our Terms and Payments Terms.

WhatsApp Inc.Arbitration OptOut Willow RoadMenlo Park, California United States of America

In addition to what is described in ourPrivacy Policy, we receive information when we provide Payments.

WhatsApp cares about your . OurPrivacy Policyapplies to your use of Payments. Because additional information will be collected and processed when you use Payments, the WhatsAppPayments Privacy Policyalso applies to your use of Payments. The WhatsApp Payments Privacy Policy describes additional information practices applicable to Payments, including the s of information we receive and collect from you when you use Payments and how we use and share this information. If you use Payments, you agree to our data practices, including the collection, use, processing, and sharing of your information as described in our Privacy Policy and our Payments Privacy Policy, as well as the transfer and processing of your information to the United States and other countries globally where we have or use cilities, service providers, or partners, regardless of where you use Payments. You acknowledge that the laws, regulations, and standards of the country in which your information is stored or processed may be different from those of your own country.

You agree to our information practices, including the collection, use, processing, and sharing of your information as described in this Privacy Policy, as well as the transfer and processing of your information to the United States and other countries globally where we have or use cilities, service providers, or partners, regardless of where you use our Services. You acknowledge that the laws, regulations, and standards of the country in which your information is stored or processed may be different from those of your own country.

.. Accounts refers to the resident Indian savings and/or current bank accounts held and maintained with any bank in India which is used for operations through the Facility.

ScopeWhatsApp adheres to the Privacy Shield Principles for the following areas of our business collectively the Partner Services

Governing Law.The laws of the State of California govern our Terms, as well as any Disputes, whether in court or arbitration, which might arise between WhatsApp and you, without regard to conflict of law provisions.


to rank the FAQs on our website based on popularity, understand mobile versus desktop users of our webbased Services, or understand popularity and effectiveness of certain of our web s.

WhatsApp cares about your . WhatsAppsPrivacy Policydescribes our information including message practices, including the s of information we receive and collect from you and how we use and share this information. You agree to our data practices, including the collection, use, processing, and sharing of your information as described in our Privacy Policy, as well as the transfer and processing of your information to the United States and other countries globally where we have or use cilities, service providers, or partners, regardless of where you use our Services. You acknowledge that the laws, regulations, and standards of the country in which your information is stored or processed may be different from those of your own country.

You declare, under penalty of perjury, that you are the owner or authorized to act on behalf of the owner of an exclusive copyright or trademark that is allegedly infringed.

Purchase Transactions. If you use Payments to pay for goods or services, you agree to make legitimate purchases and to be bound by any terms of the sale. We have no responsibility for any goods or services purchased using Payments, including for any claims, damages, losses, liabilities, chargebacks or disputes associated with transactions. WE MAKE NO WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WITH RESPECT TO ANY PRODUCTS OR SERVICES SOLD USING PAYMENTS.

.. The User agrees that the Payment Order shall become irrevocable when it is executed by ICICI Bank.

You share your information as you use and communicate through our Services, and we share your information to help us operate, provide, improve, understand, customize, support, and market our Services.

Legal and Acceple Use.You must access and use our Services only for legal, authorized, and acceple purposes. You will not use or assist others in using our Services in ways that a violate, misappropriate, or infringe the rights of WhatsApp, our users, or others, including , publicity, intellectual property, or other proprietary rights; b are illegal, obscene, dematory, threatening, intimidating, harassing, hateful, racially, or ethnically offensive, or instigate or encourage conduct that would be illegal, or otherwise inappropriate, including promoting violent crimes; c involve publishing lsehoods, misrepresentations, or misleading statements; d impersonate someone; e involve sending illegal or impermissible communications such as bulk messaging, automessaging, autodialing, and the like; or f involve any nonpersonal use of our Services unless otherwise authorized by us.

Usage and Log Information.We collect servicerelated, diagnostic, and performance information. This includes information about your activity such as how you use our Services, how you interact with others using our Services, and the like, log files, and diagnostic, crash, website, and performance logs and reports.

You will comply with all applicable U.S. and nonU.S. export control and trade sanctions laws Export Laws. You will not, directly or indirectly, export, reexport, provide, or otherwise transfer our Services a to any inidual, entity, or country prohibited by Export Laws; b to anyone on U.S. or nonU.S. government restricted parties lists; or c for any purpose prohibited by Export Laws, including nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons, or missile technology applications without the required government authorizations. You will not use or download our Services if you are located in a restricted country, if you are currently listed on any U.S. or nonU.S. restricted parties list, or for any purpose prohibited by Export Laws, and you will not disguise your location through IP proxying or other methods.

.. The User may request for termination of the UPI Facility anytime by giving a prior written notice of at least days to ICICI Bank. The User will remain responsible for all the transactions made through the UPI Facility until the time of such termination.

. We share information with thirdparty providers and services to help us operate and improve Payments. To send payment instructions to PSPs, maintain your transaction history, provide customer support, and keep our Services safe and secure, including to detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, safety, security, abuse, or other misconduct, we share information we collect under this Payments Privacy Policy with thirdparty service providers including Facebook. To provide Payments to you, we share information with thirdparty services including PSPs, such as your mobile phone number, registration information, device identifiers, VPAs, the senders UPI PIN, and payment amount.

ICICI Bank shall not be responsible for, and the User shall solely be responsible for, any unauthorised access or use of their personal or financial information through the WhatsApp Platform.

.. The User agrees that the Facility is offered in line with the RBIs guidelines on mobile banking which are subject to change from time to time.

Your complete contact information full name, mailing address, and phone number. Note that we regularly provide your contact information, including your name and email address if provided, the name of your organization or client who owns the rights in question, and the content of your report to the person whose content you are reporting. You may wish to provide a professional or business email address where you can be reached.

Severability.If the prohibition against class actions and other Disputes brought on behalf of third parties is found to be unenforceable for a Dispute, then all of the provisions above under the caption Special Arbitration Provision for United States or Canada Users will be null and void as to that Dispute.

Excluded Dispute means any Dispute relating to the enforcement or infringement of your or our intellectual property rights such as copyrights, trademarks, domains, logos, trade dress, trade secrets, and patents. For clarity and notwithstanding the foregoing, those Disputes relating to, arising out of, or in any way in connection with your rights of and publicity are not Excluded Disputes.

Legal Requests.Personal data that is transferred to us by our Partners may be subject to disclosure pursuant to legal requests or other judicial and government process, such as subpoenas, warrants, or orders. For more information, review the Law and Protection section of the WhatsApp Privacy Policy.

ICICI Bank shall be entitled to sell, assign, securitise or transfer ICICI Banks rights and obligations under these Terms and any security in vour of ICICI Bank including all guarantee[s] to any person of ICICI Banks choice in whole or in part and in such manner and on such terms and conditions as ICICI Bank may decide. Any such sale, assignment, securitisation or transfer shall conclusively bind the User and all other persons. The User, their successors and assigns are bound by these Terms. However, the User shall not be entitled to transfer or assign any of their rights and obligations under these Terms.

.. PSP Payment Service Provider refers to banks which are allowed to acquire Users and provide payment services to Users and entities.

Our Services.We operate and provide our Services, including providing customer support, and improving, fixing, and customizing our Services. We understand how people use our Services, and analyze and use the information we have to evaluate and improve our Services, research, develop, and test new services and features, and conduct troubleshooting activities. We also use your information to respond to you when you contact us. We usecookiesto operate, provide, improve, understand, and customize our Services.

This Payments Privacy Policy helps explain our information practices when you use Payments. PSPs may also collect, use, and share information as set forth in their policies, in conjunction with helping to provide Payments to you.


The Facility offers an instant, x, interbank electronic fund transfer or fund collection service to the customers of UPI member banks. Users can put in a request for fund transfers or respond to funds collection in a secure manner for any of their linked Accounts as per the Terms, which may be changed by ICICI Bank as it deems fit.

Account Information.Your phone number, profile name and photo, online status and status message, last seen status, and receipts may be available to anyone who uses our Services, although you can configure your Services settings to manage certain information available to other users.

.. ICICI Bank may suspend or terminate the UPI Facility anytime without assigning any reason whatsoever without any prior notice upon the request of WhatsApp.

Access.Within the scope of our authorization to do so, and in accordance with our commitments under Privacy Shield, WhatsApp will work with its Partners to provide iniduals access to personal data about them that WhatsApp holds on behalf of its Partners. WhatsApp will also take reasonable steps to enable iniduals, either directly or in connection with the Partners, to correct, amend, or delete personal data that is demonstrated to be inaccurate.

Nothing in our Terms will prevent us from complying with the law.

Weve built , endtoend encryption, and other security features into WhatsApp. We dont store your messages once theyve been delivered. When they are endtoend encrypted, we and third parties cant read them.

We may amend or update this Payments Privacy Policy. We will provide you notice of amendments to this Payments Privacy Policy, as appropriate, and update the Last Modified date at the top of this Payments Privacy Policy. Your continued use of Payments confirms your acceptance of our Payments Privacy Policy, as amended. If you do not agree to our Payments Privacy Policy, as amended, you must stop using Payments and deregister your bank account from your WhatsApp VPA. Please review our Payments Privacy Policy from time to time.

.. The User shall provide correct beneficiary details to ICICI Bank at the time of availing the Facility. The User shall be solely responsible for entering wrong beneficiary details including but not limited to incorrect VPA, incorrect Aadhaar number or incorrect mobile number, due to which the funds are transferred to an incorrect beneficiary.

Please include all of the following information when reporting a copyright or trademark infringement claim to WhatsApp

.. The User agrees that they shall not be entitled to make any claim against Reserve Bank of India RBI and/or National Payment Corporation of India NPCI in respect to the Facility.

Termination.We may modify, suspend, or terminate your access to or use of our Services anytime for any reason, such as if you violate the letter or spirit of our Terms or create harm, risk, or possible legal exposure for us, our users, or others. The following provisions will survive any termination of your relationship with WhatsApp Licenses, Disclaimers, Limitation of Liability, Indemnification, Dispute Resolution, Availability and Termination of our Services, Other, and Special Arbitration Provision for United States or Canada Users.

ThirdParty Services.When you use thirdparty services that are integrated with our Services, they may receive information about what you share with them. For example, if you use a data backup service integrated with our Services such as iCloud or Google Drive, they will receive information about what you share with them. If you interact with a thirdparty service linked through our Services, you may be providing information directly to such third party. Please note that when you use thirdparty services, their own terms and policies will govern your use of those services.

Payment Amount. You are responsible for the total payment amount. You must ensure that you have sufficient funds in your bank account before executing any transaction through Payments.

.. The User understands and agrees that certain information collected by ICICI Bank, including information obtained from Payments System Providers, acquiring banks, partner banks, the issuer bank of the senders funding account, the issuer bank of the beneficiarys bank account, NPCI and RBI or third parties, is shared between ICICI Bank and WhatsApp to provide the Facility. In addition, the User understands and agrees that ICICI Bank is required to share their personal information, such as name, email address and payment instrument details, with third parties for the purposes of processing transactions or for the use of the services to register their complaints. ICICI Bank will abide by NPCI guidelines and adhere to the customer dispute management process specified by NPCI.

Customer Support.You may provide us with information related to your use of our Services, including copies of your messages, and how to contact you so we can provide you customer support. For example, you may send us an email with information relating to our app performance or other issues.

To report claims of thirdparty copyright, trademark, or other intellectual property infringement, please visit ourIntellectual Property Policy. We may terminate your WhatsApp account if you repeatedly infringe the intellectual property rights of others.

Agreement to Arbitrate for WhatsApp Users Located in the United States or Canada.For WhatsApp users located in the United States or Canada, WhatsApp and you each agree to waive the right to a trial by judge or jury for all Disputes, except for the Excluded Disputes. WhatsApp and you agree that all Disputes except for the Excluded Disputes, including those relating to, arising out of, or in any way in connection with your rights of and publicity, will be resolved through final and binding arbitration. WhatsApp and you agree not to combine a Dispute that is subject to arbitration under our Terms with a Dispute that is not eligible for arbitration under our Terms.

Your Rights.WhatsApp does not claim ownership of the information that you submit for your WhatsApp account or through our Services. You must have the necessary rights to such information that you submit for your WhatsApp account or through our Services and the right to grant the rights and licenses in our Terms.

By applying for and accessing the Facility, the User accepts these terms, which shall govern the provision of the Facility by ICICI Bank. The Terms shall be in addition to and not in derogation of the regulatory guidelines issued from time to time.

WhatsApp Inc. WhatsApp, our, we, or us is committed to helping people and organizations protect their intellectual property rights. Our users agree to our Terms of Service Terms by installing, accessing, or using our apps, services, features, software, or website together, Services. Our Terms do not allow our users to violate someone elses intellectual property rights when using our Services, including their copyrights and trademarks.

Communications About Our Services and the Facebook Family of Companies.We communicate with you about our Services and features and let you know about our terms and policies and other important updates. We may provide you marketing for our Services and those of theFacebook mily of companies, of which we are now a part.

Forum and Venue.If you are a WhatsApp user located in the United States or Canada, the Special Arbitration Provision for United States or Canada Users section below applies to you. Please also read that section carefully and completely. If you are not subject to the Special Arbitration Provision for United States or Canada Users section below, you agree that you will resolve any Claim you have with us relating to, arising out of, or in any way in connection with our Terms, us, or our Services each, a Dispute, and together, Disputes exclusively in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California or a state court located in San Mateo County in California, and you agree to submit to the personal jurisdiction of such courts for the purpose of litigating all such Disputes.

Availability of Our Services.Our Services may be interrupted, including for maintenance, repairs, upgrades, or network or equipment ilures. We may discontinue some or all of our Services, including certain features and the support for certain devices and platforms, at any time. Events beyond our control may affect our Services, such as events in nature and other force majeure events.

Fees and Taxes.You are responsible for all carrier data plan and other fees and taxes associated with your use of our Services. We may charge you for our Services, including applicable taxes. We may refuse or cancel orders. We do not provide refunds for our Services, except as required by law.

.. ICICI Bank means ICICI Bank Limited, a company incorporated under the Companies Act, , and licensed as a bank under the Banking Regulation Act, , and having its corporate office at ICICI Bank Towers, Bandra Ka Complex, Mumbai which expression shall, unless it be repugnant to the subject or con thereof, include its successors and assigns.

.. Notices under these Terms may be given in writing by delivering them by hand, or on ICICI Banks website or by sending them by post to the last address given by the User and, in the case of ICICI Bank, to its corporate office address. In addition, ICICI Bank may also publish notices of general nature, which are applicable to all Users, in a news or on its website at Such notices will have the same effect as a notice served inidually to each User. Notice and instructions will be deemed served days after posting or upon receipt in the case of hand delivery, cable, telex or csimile.

To report copyright infringement and request that WhatsApp remove any infringing content it is hosting such as a WhatsApp users profile picture, profile name, or status message, please email a completed copyright infringement claim to including all of the information listed below. You can also mail a complete copyright infringement claim to WhatsApps copyright agent

A description of the copyrighted work or trademark that you claim has been infringed.

WhatsApp Inc. WhatsApp, our, we, or us provides messaging, Internet calling, and other services to users around the world. Please read our Terms of Service so you understand whats up with your use of WhatsApp. You agree to our Terms of Service Terms by installing, accessing, or using our apps, services, features, software, or website together, Services.

Time Limit to Start Arbitration.We and you agree that for any Dispute except for the Excluded Disputes we and you must commence an arbitration proceeding within one year after the Dispute first arose; otherwise, such Dispute is permanently barred. This means that if we or you do not commence an arbitration within one year after the Dispute first arose, then the arbitration will be dismissed because it was started too late.

Your Account Information.You provide your mobile phone number to create a WhatsApp account. You provide us the phone numbers in your mobile address book on a regular basis, including those of both the users of our Services and your other contacts. You confirm you are authorized to provide us such numbers. You may also add other information to your account, such as a profile name, profile picture, and status message.

In this document, the following words and phrases have the meanings set opposite them unless the con indicates otherwise. Words or expressions used in this form, but not specifically defined herein, shall have the respective meanings assigned to them by NPCI.

We still do not allow thirdparty banner ads on WhatsApp.

. We collect information when you send or receive a payment, including the date and time, the sender and receivers VPA and name, and reference transaction number.

You agree to defend, indemnify, and hold harmless the WhatsApp Parties from and against all liabilities, damages, losses, and expenses of any kind including reasonable legal fees and costs relating to, arising out of, or in any way in connection with any of the following a your access to or use of our Services, including information provided in connection therewith; b your breach or alleged breach of our Terms; or c any misrepresentation made by you. You will cooperate as fully as required by us in the defense or settlement of any Claim.

Our Terms and Policies.You must use our Services according to our Terms and posted policies. If we disable your account for a violation of our Terms, you will not create another account without our permission.

any misrepresentation or breach of representation or warranty made by the User contained herein;

We always appreciate your feedback or other suggestions about WhatsApp and our Services, but you understand that we may use your feedback or suggestions without any obligation to compensate you for them just as you have no obligation to offer them.

NO AESS TO EMERGENCY SERVICES There are important differences between WhatsApp and your mobile and fixedline telephone and SMS services. Our Services do not provide access to emergency services or emergency services providers, including the police, fire departments, or hospitals, or otherwise connect to public safety answering points. You should ensure you can contact your relevant emergency services providers through a mobile, fixedline telephone, or other service.

Were beta testing the payments feature for a limited number of users in India. At this time, we dont have any updates for the feature more widely available.

.. The User shall be in compliance at all times with applicable laws regarding the use of the Facility and shall not use the Facility in violation of the applicable laws.

WhatsApp Inc.Attn WhatsApp Agent Willow RoadMenlo Park, California United States of America

Fees and Taxes. You must pay any applicable fees arising out of your use of Payments, including any overdraft, transaction, or other fees charged by your bank, PSPs, or WhatsApp. You must comply with applicable tax laws in connection with your use of Payments, including reporting and payment of any taxes related to transactions made through Payments and any income received from such transactions. WhatsApp is not responsible for withholding, collecting, reporting, or remitting any sales, use, value added, or other tax arising from any transaction you complete using Payments.

We reserve all rights not expressly granted by us to you. In certain jurisdictions, you may have legal rights as a consumer, and our Terms are not intended to limit such consumer legal rights that may not be waived by contract.

If you would like to manage, change, limit, or delete your information, we allow you to do that through the following tools

Place to File Permitted Court Actions.If you opt out of the agreement to arbitrate, if your Dispute is an Excluded Dispute, or if the arbitration agreement is found to be unenforceable, you agree to be subject to the Forum and Venue provisions in the Dispute Resolution section set forth above.

WhatsApps License to You.We grant you a limited, revocable, nonexclusive, nonsublicensable, and nontransferable license to use our Services, subject to and in accordance with our Terms. This license is for the sole purpose of enabling you to use our Services, in the manner permitted by our Terms. No licenses or rights are granted to you by implication or otherwise, except for the licenses and rights expressly granted to you.

Third Parties.WhatsApp may transfer data within theFacebook mily of companiesand to third parties, including service providers and other partners. In accordance with the Privacy Shield Principles, WhatsApp is liable for any processing of personal data by such third parties that is inconsistent with the Privacy Shield Principles unless WhatsApp was not responsible for the event giving rise to any alleged damage.

Acceple Use of Payments. You must access and use Payments only for legal, authorized, and acceple purposes, according to our Terms and postedpolicies. A PSP or WhatsApp may impose limits on your ability to send or receive payments, including transaction limits. A PSP or WhatsApp may also cancel any transaction if we believe the transaction violates the Terms, these Payments Terms, posted policies, or the PSPs terms.

Our Services may allow you to access, use, or interact with thirdparty websites, apps, content, and other products and services. For example, you may choose to use thirdparty data backup services such as iCloud or Google Drive that are integrated with our Services or interact with a share button on a third partys website that enables you to send information to your WhatsApp contacts. Please note that when you use thirdparty services, their own terms and policies will govern your use of those services.

. When you register to use Payments, you provide your banks name, partial debit card number, and debit card expiration date. You will also be asked to provide your ATM PIN or UPI PIN, or to set up an UPI PIN for payment transactions if you do not already have one. We receive your debit card details and ATM PIN or UPI PIN securely, and we do not retain this information.

.. The role of ICICI Bank hereunder is limited to acting as a Payment Service Provider, which would include receiving from WhatsApp, bank information/data of the User for the purpose of i creation of the VPA; and ii processing the transactions initiated by the User using the UPI Facility as per applicable law.

.. The User shall be bound by any Payment Order executed by ICICI Bank if ICICI Bank has executed the Payment Order in good ith and in compliance with the instructions given by the User on the WhatsApp Application.

PSPs Role. When you initiate a transaction through Payments, a designated PSP receives the instructions and processes the transaction via UPI. By using Payments, you will also need to agree to the PSPs terms and policy, which will be presented to you when you first use Payments. The PSPs terms and policy are also availablehere. These Payments Terms govern the relationship between WhatsApp and you regarding Payments, and the PSPs terms govern the relationship between the PSP and you.

Your messages are yours, and we cant read them.

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The information in your claim is accurate; and

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Call it the political equivalent of a deathdefying escape The Affordable Care Act pulled in nearly . million customers for , despite the Republican campaign to erase it from the books.

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The Colorado Opioid Safety Pilot focuses on replacing opioids with other alternative medications to treat pain. The EDs in Colorado that participated in the project decreased prescribing by over six months.

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Dr. Brett Giroir was confirmed to be assistant secretary for health at HHS via a voice vote this week, despite Democrats concerns that womens access to care could be harmed by his appointment.

The most recent budget legislation included a bill that expands Medicare reimbursement of telemedicine, which industry groups and providers say will push adoption.

MACRAs approach to reimbursing physicians is here, but many doctors and administrators are still trying to get a handle on how it works. Read on for tips on how to deal with this major change to the Medicare payment system.

The Bipartisan Budget Act, passed early Friday following a shortlived government shutdown, includes Congress most significant healthcare legislation since the st Century Cures Act.

RH will operate and manage the cilities in Washington, Alaska and Idaho, and UW Medicine will provide clinical and quality expertise. The two organizations said smaller community hospitals in the region are looking for partnerships with larger hospitals to support growth and quality improvement.

Investors are getting more active in pursuing changes at healthcare companies.

The National Quality Forum has waited more than four months for congressional funding, which accounts for roughly of its total budget.

Oakland, Calif.based Kaiser Permanente has its newest health plan acquisition in Washington state to thank for what might be its largest yearoveryear revenue growth.

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Public health leaders said the congressional budget deal passed Friday to fund the government sacrifices investments in longterm public health prevention.

This weeks earnings reports are likely to keep up with the current pace of financial releases, as at least a few health systems and one major insurance carrier unveil their balance sheets.

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Business law legaldefinition of business definition of Business law

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Though the business world undergoes constant change, commercial laws generally have remained static. TheCommissioners on Uniform Laws, in conjunction with the American Law Institute and other organizations, periodically revises the articles of the U. However, the revision process of the U is typically slow and deliberate. Recent revisions to Article governing the sale of goods and Article governing secured transactions took several years to complete. Thus, not only is commercial law substantially uniform throughout the United States, but also those who conduct business can proceed with commercial transactions with some degree of certainty as to the law that governs those transactions.

A broad concept that describes theSubstantive Lawthat governs transactions between business entities, with the exception of maritime transportation of goods regulated byAdmiralty and Maritime Law.Commercial law includes all aspects of business, including advertising and marketing, collections andBankruptcy,banking, contracts, negotiable instruments,Secured Transactions,and trade in general. It covers both domestic and foreign trade; it also regulates trade between states.

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The term commercial law describes a wide body of laws that govern business transactions. TheUniform Commercial CodeU, which has been adopted in part by every state in the United States, is the primary authority that governs commercial transactions. The U is ided into nine articles, covering a broad spectrum of issues that arise in commercial transactions. These articles govern the following sales of goods, leases of goods, negotiable instruments, bank deposits, fund transfers, letters of credit, bulk sales, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, investmentSecurities, and secured transactions.

A number of other laws also govern business transactions. For instance, although Article of the U governs bank deposits, federal law in the form of statutes and regulations prescribe requirements forBanks and Bankingin general. Likewise, federal law governs such issues related to commercial law as bankruptcy and debt collection. Many of the federal laws related to commercial transactions are codified in title of the U.S. Code.

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Although the U controls most aspects of domestic commercial law, theCommon Lawof contracts, as well as other state laws, still applies to some s of transactions that arise in business, such as contracts for ternational Lawis likewise an important component of this area. For instance, the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods has been ratified by approximately nations, representing twothirds of the worlds trade.

All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional.

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Banks and BankingCheckContractsMercantileMerchanleNorth American Free Trade AgreementPromissory NoteSales LawUniform Commercial CodeWarranty.

n. all the law which applies to the rights, relations and conduct of persons and businesses engaged in commerce, merchandising, trade, and sales. In recent years this body of law has been codified in the Uniform Commercial Code, which has been almost universally adopted by the states. SeeUniform Commercial Code

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Colton focuses his efforts primarily in resort development, real estate transactions and

Section and the Real Property, Probate, and Trust Law Section have released a draft of their Report on Standards for Thirdparty Legal Opinions of Florida Counsel and are calling for comments.

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statutes governing conversion, also provides for shareholders to take over the management of the property through eventual control of the board of directors.

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The objects of a financier are, then, to secure an ample revenue; to impose it with judgment and equality; to employ it economically; and, when necessity obliges him to make use of credit, to secure its foundations in that instance, and for ever, by the clearness and candor of his proceedings, the exactness of his calculations, and the solidity of his funds.

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While it may not seem intuitive, the battle of objective vs. subjective decision often makes an appearance in investing. Subjective refers to personal perspectives, feelings, or opinions entering the decision process. Objective …

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Ingeneral, objectives are more specific and easier tomeasurethan goals. Objectives are basic tools that underlie allplanningandstrategicactivities. They serve as the basis for creatingpolicyand evaluatingperformance. Someexamplesofbusinessobjectives include minimizing expenses, expanding internationally, or aprofit.

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